Genome-editing techniques are promising tools in plant breeding. To facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the current and future applications of genome editing in crops, EU-SAGE developed an interactive, publicly accessible online database of genome-edited crops.

The aim of the database is to inform interested stakeholder communities in a transparent manner about the latest evidence about genome editing applications in crops. Different elements including the plant species, traits, techniques, and applications can be filtered in this database.

Regarding the methodology, a literature search in the bibliographic databases and web pages of governmental agencies was conducted using predefined queries in English. Identifying research articles in other languages was not possible due to language barriers. Patents were not screened.

Peer-reviewed articles were screened for relevance and were included in the database based on pre-defined criteria. The main criterium is that the research article should describe a research study of any crop developed for market-oriented agricultural production as a result of a genome editing.

This database will be regularly updated. Please contact us via the following webpage (https://www.eu-sage.eu/contact) in case you would like to inform us about a new scientific study of crops developed for market-oriented agricultural production as a result of genome editing.

This work has been supported by Task Force Planet Re-Imagine Europa (https://reimagine-europa.eu/area/planet)

Genome Editing Technique

Plant

Displaying 510 results

Traits related to abiotic stress tolerance

Enhanced responses to abscisic acid (ABA), which plays an important role in drought stress responses in plants. Improved drought tolerance through stomatal regulation and increased primary root growth under non-stressed conditions.
( Ogata et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS)
RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science
University of Tsukuba, Japan
Enhanced resistance to salt and oxidative stress and increased grain yield.
( Alfatih et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Increased drought tolerance: suppresses xylem vessel proliferation, leading to lower water conductance, and reduced water-loss under water-deficit conditions.
(Illouz-Eliaz et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture
The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
Tolerance to salt stress.
( Tran et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Gyeongsang National University, South Korea
College of Agriculture
Bac Lieu University, Vietnam
Enhanced drought tolerance.
( Liu et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Drought tolerance.
( Kim D et al,. 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Montana State University, USA
Drought tolerance and abscisic acid sensitivity.
( Lou et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Potassium deficiency tolerance and contribution to stomatal closure.
( Mao et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences
National Center of Rice Improvement of China
National Engineering Laboratory of Rice
South Base of National Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice of China, China
Salt tolerance.
( Duan et al,. 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Arsenic (As) tolerance. As is toxic to organisms and elevated As accumulation may pose health risks to humans.
( Duan et al., 2015 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Improved yield and cold tolerance. High yield and high cold tolerance were often antagonistic to each other.
( Zeng et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, China
Altered cuticle properties to enhance drought tolerance.
( Negin et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel
Curled leaf phenotype and improved drought tolerance.
( Liao et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guangxi University
South China Agricultural University, China
Drought and salt tolerance.
( Curtin et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Minnesota, USA
The University of Newcastle, Australia
Enhanced tolerance to heat stress involving ROS homeostasis. Less severe wilting and less membrane damage, lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents and higher activities and transcript levels of antioxidant enzymes, as well as higher expression of heat shock proteins and genes encoding heat stress transcription factors.
( Yu et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University
Renmin University of China, China
Enhanced salinity tolerance.
( Zhang et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University
Shanghai Agrobiological Gene Center, China
Higher tolerance to salt and osmotic stress through reduced stomatal conductance coupled with increased leaf relative water content and Abscisic acid (ABA) content under normal and stressful conditions.
( Bouzroud et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Université Mohammed V de Rabat, Morocco
Université de Toulouse, France
Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Brazil
Increased tolerance to drought trough reducing water loss. Tuber development.
( Gonzales et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Wageningen University and Research, The Netherlands
Centro Nacional de Biotecnología – CSIC
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Spain
Enhanced the tolerance of plants to salt (NaCl), the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA), dehydration and polyethylene glycol (PEG) stresses.
( Yue et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University
Hunan Agricultural University, China
Salinity tolerance. Salinity stress is one of the most important abiotic stress factors affecting rice production worldwide.
( Lim et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Kangwon National University
Sangji University
Kyung Hee University, South Korea
Drought tolerance by modulating lignin accumulation in roots.
( Bang et al, 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Seoul National University, South Korea
Enhances adaptation to direct-seeding on wet land and tolerance to drought stress in rice. Water stress is the most important factor limiting rice agriculture by either floods or drought.
( Zhang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University
Shanghai Agrobiological Gene Center, China
Increased tolerance to salinity stress. Improved rice yields in saline paddy fields by root angle modifications to adapt to climate change.
( Kitomi et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO)
Tohoku University
Institute of Agrobiological Sciences
Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)
Advanced Analysis Center
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan
Increased tolerance to salinity stress. Development of lines with reduced inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) content may enhance phosphate and mineral bioavailability. ICP6 is a major storage form of phosphate in cereal grains.
( Vicko et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Czech Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic
Drought tolerance.
( Njuguna et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ghent University
Center for Plant Systems Biology, Belgium
Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya
Salt tolerance during the seedling stage.
( Chen et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Huazhong Agriculture University
Hubei Hongshan Laboratory, China
Drought tolerance.
( Zhao et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hebei Normal University
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Enhanced salinity stress tolerance.
( Wang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northeast Normal University
Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Linyi University
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Drought resistance.
( Zhang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Jilin Agricultural University, China
Improved Cadmium (Cd)-tolerance by reducing the Cd transport from vacuole to cytosol in tobacco leaves.
( Jia et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Henan Agricultural University
Xiamen University, China
Improved salt stress resistance. Significant increase in the shoot weight, the total chlorophyll content, and the chlorophyll fluorescence under salt stress. Also high antioxidant activities coincided with less reactive oxygen species (ROS).
( Shah Alam et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University, China
Taif University, Saudi Arabia
Alexandria University, Egypt
Modulate aluminium resistance. Aluminum (Al) toxicity is the main factor inhibiting plant root development and reducing crops yield in acidic soils.
( Zhang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences
China Agricultural University, China
University of California, USA
Conferred thermotolerance and the stability of heat shock proteins.
( Huang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China
Shandong (Linyi) Institute of Modern Agriculture, China
Regulated circadian clock: circadian clock measures and conveys day length information to control rhythmic hypocotyl growth in photoperiodic conditions, to achieve optimal fitness. Mutants showed longer hypocotyls, lower core circadian clock morning component mRNA and protein levels, and a shorter circadian rhythm. Exposure to high temperature due to global warming.
(Kim et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Institute of Agricultural Science
Korea Polar Research Institute
Seoul National University College of Medicine, South Korea

Traits related to improved food/feed quality

Generation of beta-carotene-enriched banana fruits. Carotenoids, the source of pro vitamin A, are an essential component of dietary antioxidants. Low intakes and poor bioavailability of provitamine A from the vegetarian diet are considered the main reasons for the widespread prevalence of Vitamine A deficiency.
( Kaur et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ministry of Science and Technology (Government of India)
Panjab University, India
Increased levels of oleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid. Camelina is a low-input oilseed crop. It is necessary to ameloriate fatty acid composition in oils to meet different application requirements.
( Ozseyhan et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Montana State University, USA
Increased levels of oleic acid, decreased levels of fatty acids.
( Morineau et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Université Paris-Saclay, France
Lower oil content and altered fatty acid composition. Most commercially produced oil seeds synthesize only a relatively small range of fatty acids, offering limited functionality.
( Aznar-Moreno et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Kansas State University, USA
Improved fatty acid composition. The content and abundance of fatty acids play an important role in nutritional and processing applications of oilseeds.
( Okuzaki et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Tamagawa University
Osaka Prefecture University
Tamagawa University, Japan
Decreases in palmitic acid, increased total C18 and reduced total saturated fatty acid contents. Reduced saturated fat content is connected to lowered cardiovascular disease rate.
( Gupta et al., 2012 )
SDN1
ZFN
Dow AgroSciences
Sangamo BioSciences, USA
Reduction of amylose content (AC). AC is the predominant factor determining rice eating and cooking quality.
( He et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northeast Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Northeast Agricultural University, China
Reduction in cadmium accumulation. Cadmium is a heavy metal, harmful for human health. Cadmium accumulation represents a severe threat to people consuming rice as a staple food.
( Yang et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanjing Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Decreased seed size and promoted seed germination. To improve consumer experience for flesh-consumed watermelons, no (or small and sparse) seeds are better because the flesh portion is larger.
( Wang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Beijing Key Laboratory of Vegetable Germplasm Improvement, China
Improved aleurone layer with enhanced grain protein content. Improved grain nutritional quality by improved accumulation of essential dietary minerals (Fe, Zn, K, P, Ca) in the endosperm of rice grain. Improved root and shoot architecture.
( Achary et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, India
Generation of a new glutinous Photothermosensitive Genic-Male-Sterile (PTGMS) line with a low amylose content. PTMGS line combines high-quality and high-light-efficiency use, disease and stress resistance.
( Teng et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guangxi University
South China Agricultural University, China
High-quality sugar production by rice (98% sucrose content). Carbohydrates are an essential energy-source. Sugarcane and sugar beet were the only two crop plants used to produce sugar.
( Honma et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, China
Faculty of Engineering
Kitami Institute of Technology
NagoyaUniversity
Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan
Carnegie Institution for Science, USA
Reduce malnutrition by decreasing antinutrient phytic acid (PA) and increasing Iron and Zinc accumulation. PA has adverse effects on essential mineral absorption and thus is considered as an anti-nutritive for monogastric animals.
( Ibrahim et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad
National Agricultural Research Centre, Pakistan
Production of high amylose and resistant starch rice. Starch accounts for 80 to 90% of the total mass of rice seeds and is low in resistant starch (RS), which is beneficial in preventing various diseases. Starch with high amylose content (AC) and RS have a lower GI value. Foods with low GI value have beneficial effects on glycemic control.
( Wang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Chiayi University
Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute Chiayi Agricultural Experiment Branch, Taiwan
Fragrance by accumulation of the natural aroma substance 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP). Fragrance is one of the most important rice quality traits, with 2AP being the major contributor to aroma.
( Tang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Hubei Academy of Agriculture Sciences
Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Agricultural Research Center, Egypt
Improved amylose levels to influence grain eating and cooking quality (ECQ).
( Huang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Yangzhou University, China
Promoted phenolic acid biosynthesis. Salvia is tradional Chinese medicine with great medical value to treat cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. Phenolic acids make up a big part of the bioactive compounds.
( Shi et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
East China University of Science and Technology
Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, China
University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA
Generation of seed lipoxygenase-free soybean. Lipoxygenases are responsible for an unpleasant beany flavor by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, restricting human consumption.
( Wang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, China
Increased soya bean isoflavone content and resistance to soya bean mosaic virus. Isoflavonoids play a critical role in plant-environment interactions and are beneficial to human health.
( Zhang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanjing Agricultural University
Anhui Academy of Agricultural Science
Guangzhou University, China
High oleic, low linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid phenotype. High concentration of linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids causes oxidative instability.
( Do et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Missouri, USA
Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Vietnam
Reduced raffinose family oligosaccharide (RFO) levels in seeds. Human and other monogastric animals cannot digest major soluble carbohydrates, RFOs.
( Le et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Vietnam
University of Missouri, USA
Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research
Germany
High oleic acid, low linoleic content.
( al Amin et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Jilin Agricultural University, China
Low polyunsaturated fats content. Soybean oil is high in polyunsaturated fats and is often partially hydrogenated. The trans-fatty acids produced through hydrogenation pose a health threat.
( Haun et al., 2014 )
SDN1
TALENs
Cellectis plant sciences Inc., USA
High oleic and low linolenic oil to improve nutritional characteristics, increase shelf-life and frying stability.
( Demorest et al., 2016 )
SDN1
TALENs
Cellectis plant science Inc.
Calyxt, USA
Improvement of starch quality.
( Wang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Science

Shanghai Sanshu Biotechnology Co.
LTD, China
University of Kentucky, USA
Parthenocarpy: seedless tomato. Industrial purposes and direct eating quality.
(Klap et al., 2016)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Agricultural Research Organization, Israel
Seedless tomatoes for industrial purposes and direct eating quality.
( Ueta et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Tokushima University, Japan
Increased gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) content. GABA is a nonproteogenic amino acid with health-promoting functions.
( Lee et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Increased lycopene content. Lycopene plays a role in treating chronic diseases and lowering the risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Enhanced contents of lycopene, phytoene, prolycopene, a-carotene, and lutein.
( Li et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Increased protein content and increased grain weight. Increase in grain protein content has a positive effect on flour protein content and gluten strength, two quality parameters.
( Zhang et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Shandong Normal University, China
Reduced gluten content. Coeliac disease is an autoimmune disorder triggered in genetically predisposed individuals by the ingestion of gluten proteins.
( Sánchez-León,et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (IASCSIC), Spain
University of Minnesota, USA
Modification of starch composition, structure and properties. Foods with a high amylose content (AC) and resistant starch (RS) offer potential to improve human health and lower the risk of serious non-infectious diseases.
( Li et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS)
Nanjing Agricultural University, China
Increased iron (Fe) and magnesium (Mn) content for biofortification: increasing the intrinsic nutritional value of crops.
(Connorton et al., 2017)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
John Innes Centre
University of East Anglia, UK
Increased grain number per spikelet.
( Zhang et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Missouri
South Dakota State University
University of California
Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, USA
University of Bristol, UK
Reduce allergen proteins. Structural and metabolic proteins, like α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors are involved in the onset of wheat allergies (bakers' asthma) and probably Non-Coeliac Wheat Sensitivity (NCWS).
( Camerlengo et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Tuscia, Italy
Rothamsted Research, UK
Impasse Thérèse Bertrand-Fontaine, France
Reduced accumulation of free asparagine, the precursor for acrylamide. Acrylamide is a contaminant which forms during the baking, toasting and high-temperature processing of foods made from wheat.
( Raffan et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Rothamsted Research
University of Bristol, UK
Reduced flavonoids and improved fatty acid composition with higher linoleic acid and linolenic acid, valuable for rapeseed germplasm and breeding. The genetic improvement has great significance in the economic value of rapeseeds.
( Xie et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Yangzhou University
The Ministry of Education of China, China
University of Western Australia, Australia
Reduce or eliminate amylose content in root starch. Amylose influences the physicochemical properties of starch during cooking and processing.
( Bull et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Institute of Molecular Plant Biology, Switzerland
High levels of beta-carotene accumulation.
( Lu et al., 2006 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cornell University
University of Minnesota, USA
High-oleic acid content. Oleic acid has better oxidative stability than linoleic acid due to its monounsaturated nature. High levels of linoleic acid reduces the oxidative stability of cottonseed oil, which can cause rancidity, a short shelf life and production of detrimental trans-fatty acids.
( Chen et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cotton Research Center of Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Increased vitamin C content, increased oxidation stress tolerance and increased ascorbate content.
( Zhang et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Waxy phenotype, abolition of amylose.
( Qi et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Glossy phenotype. Reduced epicuticular wax in leaves.
( Char et al., 2015 )
SDN1
TALENs
Iowa State University, USA
Reduced phytic acid (PA) synthesis in seeds, PA is an anti-nutritional compound.
( Liang et al., 2013 )
SDN1
TALENs
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Alteration of the inositol phosphate profile in developing seeds.
( Shukla et al., 2009 )
SDN1
ZFN
Dow AgroSciences
Sangamo BioSciences, USA
Conversion of a normal maize hybrid into a waxy version, a specialty that produces mainly amylopectin starch with special food or industrial values and thus has high economic value.
( Qi et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Anhui Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, China
Improved fatty acid content: high oleic acid, decreased linoleic acid content. FA composition is important for human health and shelf life.
(Wen et al., 2018)
SDN1
TALENs
Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
High-oleic acid content. Oleic acid has increased oxidative stability compared to linolenic and linoleic acid, improving fuel stability and the oil's suitability for high-temperature food applications, for example frying.
( Jarvis et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Illinois State University
University of North Texas
University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA
Reduction of harmful ingredients: toxic steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs).
(Sawai et al., 2014)
SDN1
TALENs
RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science
Chiba University, Japan
Reduced amount of saturated fatty acids (FA) in soybean seeds for nutrititional improvement. FA are linked to cardiovascular diseases.
( Ma et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University, China
La Trobe University, Australia
Complete abolition of glycoalkaloids, causing a bitter taste and toxic to various organisms.
( Nakayasu et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Kobe University, Japan
Starch with an increased amylose ratio and elongated amylopectin chains. In food products, high amylose content and long amylopectin chains contribute to a low glycaemic index (GI) after intake, playing a role in health benefits.
( Zhao et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET)
Laboratorio de Agrobiotecnología (INTA), Argentina
Reduction of steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs). SGAs in most potato tissues are toxic to humans when the fresh weight is over 200mg/kg. High SGAs content also damage the quality of potato tubers.
( Zheng et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Qinghai University, China
Improve glutinosity in elite varieties. Decreased amylose content without affecting other desirable agronomic traits.
( Zhang et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Purdue University
University of Queensland, USA
Fragrant rice.
( Shan et al., 2015 )
SDN1
TALENs
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Increased amylose content. Cereals high in amylose content (AC) and resistant starch (RS) offer potential health benefits and reduce risks of diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes and certain colon and rectum cancers.
( Sun et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
University of California, USA
University of Liege, Belgium
Reduced arsenic content, a highly toxic metalloid harming human health. Inorganic Arsenic is listed as a carcinogen.
( Ye et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Altered fatty acid composition. High oleic/low linoleic acid rice. Oleic acid has potential health benefits and helps decrease lifestyle disease.
( Abe et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Japan
Reduced cesium content. The production of radiocesium in food in contaminated soils is a serious health concern.
( Nieves-Cordones et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Université Montpellier, France
Reduced cadmium content. Cadmium poses a health treath, as it is a highly toxic heavy metal for most living organisms.
( Tang et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hunan Agricultural University, Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center, Normal University, China
Carotenoid accumulation to solve the problem of vitamin A deficiency that is prevalent in developing countries.
( Endo et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Ishikawa Prefectural University, Japan
Reduction of phytic acid (PA) in seeds. PA has adverse effects on essential mineral absorption and thus is considered as an anti-nutritive for monogastric animals.
( Khan et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University
Yangtze University, China
Improved grain quality. The amylose content, gel consistency and pasting viscosity of grain starches are influencing the grain appearance, cooking/eating quality and starch physical characters.
( Zeng et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro‐Bioresources
Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture
South China Agricultural University, China
Improved quality by reduced grain protein content (GPC). High GPC is negatively correlated between protein content and peak viscosity and breakdown value. High GPC is also positively correlated to protein content and hardness.
( Wang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology/Key Laboratory of Plant Functional Genomics of the Ministry of Education/Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genomics and Molecular Breeding
Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Modern Production Technology of Grain Crops
Agricultural College of Yangzhou University, China
Sweeter kernels due to the accumulation of sugar rather than starch and waxy with an altered amylose/amylopectin ratio.
( Dong et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement
Anhui Agricultural University, China
Modified composition: accumulation of fivefold more starch than WT leaves, and more sucrose as well. Architectural changes
(Bezrutczyk et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf
Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Germany
Department of Plant Biology, Carnegie Science, USA
Production of opaque seeds with depleted starch reserves. Reduced starch content and increased amylose content. Accumulation of multiple sugars, fatty acids, amino acids and phytosterols.
( Baysal et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Lleida-Agrotecnio Center
Catalan Institute for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), Spain
Royal Holloway University of London, UK
Increased gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation by 7 to 15 fold while having variable effects on plant and fruit size and yield. GABA is a nonproteogenic amino acid and has health-promoting functions.
( Nonaka et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Tsukuba, Japan
Increased gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA): 1.34-fold to 3.50-fold increase in GABA accumulation. GABA is a nonprotegeonomic amino acid with health-promoting functions.
(Li et al., 2017)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Negligible levels of the possibly toxic steroidal glykoalkaloids (SGAs), but enhanced levels of steroidal saponins, which has pharmaceutically useful functions.
( Akiyama et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Kobe University
Riken Center for Sustainable Resource Science
Osaka University, Japan
Improved starch quality. Starch has many food and technical applications and is often modified to certain specifications.
( Andersson et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden
Enhanced soluble sugar content in tomato fruit. Soluble sugar improves the sweetness and increases tomato sauce yield.
( Wang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Xinjiang Agricultural University, China
Increased sugar content without decreased fruit weight. Sugar content is one of the most important quality traits of tomato.
( Kawaguchi et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nagoya University
Kobe University
RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science
University of Tsukuba, Japan
Aromatic maize.
( Wang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shandong Normal University
Bellagen Biotechnology Co. Ltd
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Modified fatty acid profile: increased oleic acid, decreased linoleic and linolenic acid content.
(Huang et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Yellow-seed production, a desirable trait with great potential for improving seed quality in Brassica crops. The formation of seed colour is due to the deposition of the oxidized form of a flavonoid, called proanthocyanidins (PA). Yellow seeds have a higher oil content.
( Zhai et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
High fruit malate accumulation. Malate is a primary organic acid in tomato and a crucial compound that contributes to fruit flavor and palatability.
( Ye et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Cornell University, USA
Altered starch properties. Changes in amylopectin chain-lengths, starch granule initiation and branching frequency.
( Tuncel et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Norwich Research Park, UK
Increased sucrose content.
( Ren et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Beijing Key Laboratory of Vegetable Germplasm Improvement
Capital Normal University
China Agricultural University, China
Cornell University
Robert W. Holley Center for Agriculture and Health, USA
Fragrant rice. Introduction of aroma into any non-aromatic rice varieties.
( Ashokkumar et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Increased lysophospholipid content and enhanced cooking and eating quality. Lysophospholipid (LPL) is derived from the hydrolysis of phospholipids and plays an important role in rice grain quality.
( Khan et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University, China
Attenuated toxic cyanogen production. Cassava produces toxic cyanogenic compounds and requires food processing for safe consumption.
( Gomez et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of California
Donald Danforth Plant Science Center
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University
Chan-Zuckerberg BioHub, USA
Increased digestibility and protein quality. Reduced kafirin levels. Kafirins are the major storage proteins in sorghum grains and form protein bodies with poor digestibility. Kafirins are devoid of the essential amino acid lysine, they also impart poor protein quality to the kernel.
( Li et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Nebraska
University of Missouri, USA
Reduced phytic acid (PA) synthesis in seeds, PA is an anti-nutritional compound.
( Liang et al., 2013 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
High gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content. GABA plays a key role in plant stress responses, growth, development and as a nutritional component of grain can also reduce the likelihood of hypertension and diabetes. Increased amino acid content. Higher seed weight and seed protein content.
( Akama et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shimane University
Institute of Agrobiological Sciences
National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Yokohama City University, Japan
Increased flavonoid content, functioning as allelochemicals and insect deterrents.
( Lam et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
The University of Hong Kong
The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Shenzhen
Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Nanjing Forestry University, China
Kyoto University, Japan
Low Cadmium (Cd) accumulating. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential heavy metal that is toxic to virtually all living organisms, including plants.
( Songmei et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University
Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Grain Industry
Zhejiang University
Jiaxing Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Lowering phytate synthesis in seeds. Phytate is an anti-nutritient.
( Vlčko and Ohnoutková, 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Czech Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic
Lower levels of D hordein. D hordein is one of the storage proteins in the grain, with a negative effect on malting quality.
( Li et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Qinghai Province Key Laboratory of Crop Molecular Breeding
Chinese Academy of Sciences
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Reduction of phytic acid (PA) in seeds. PA has adverse effects on essential mineral absorption and thus is considered as an anti-nutritive for monogastric animals.
( Sashidhar et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel
Max-Planck-Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Germany
Removing the major allergen to tackle food allergies.
( Assou et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Leibniz Universität Hannover
Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany
Important metabolic changes affecting tomato fruit quality. Reduced contents of the anti-nutrient oxalic acid.
( Gago et al., 2017 )
SDN1
ZFN
University of Algarve, Portugal
Centre for Research and Technology Hellas
Technological Educational Institution of Crete, Greece
Increased carotene accumulation in rice endosperm.
( Shao et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Key Laboratory of Rice Biology and Genetic Breeding, China
Improved starch quality. Reduced amylopectin and increased amylose percentage.
( Wang et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences
Shanghai Sanshu Biotechnology Co. LTD
Chinese Academy of Science, China
University of Kentucky, USA
Reduces phytic acid (anti-nutrient) and improves iron and zinc accumulation in wheat grains. Biofortification.
( Ibrahim et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad
National Agricultural Research Centre, Pakistan
Biofortification: Enhanced Zinc and Manganese tolerance and increased Zinc and Manganese accumulation in rice grains.
(Qiao et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shenzhen University
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Changing grain composition: decrease in the prolamines, an increase in the glutenins, increased starch content, amylose content, and β-glucan content. The protein matrix surrounding the starch granules was increased.
(Yang et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Sichuan Agricultural University, China
Norwich Research Park, UK
CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Australia
High-amylose content (up to 56% in apparent amylose content) and resistant starch (up to 35%).
( Luo et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Shanghai Sanshu Biotechnology Co.,
Guangxi Subtropical Crops Research Institute, China
Regulate cucumber fruit wart formation. Warty fruit in cucumber is an important quality trait that greatly affects fruit appearance.
( Wang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Aromatic three-line hybrid.
( Hui et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China National Rice Research Institute, China
Increased grain amylose content. Improving grain quality is one of the most important goals in rice breeding. Contribute to the breeding of rice cultivars with better eating and cooking quality, as cooking and eating quality is determined from amylose content.
( Liu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hunan Agricultural University
China National Seed Group Co., China
Altered protein composition due to mutations in seed storage proteins. Two major families of storage proteins, account for about 70% of total soy seed protein. Some major biochemical components influencing the quality of soy food products, for example tofu, are both the quantity and quality of storage proteins in soybean seeds.
( Li et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
Western University
Harrow Research and Development Centre, Canada
Sun Yat-sen University
Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Minnan Normal University
China
Glucoraphanin(GR)-enriched broccoli. Broccoli contains important nutritional components and beneficial phytochemicals. GR, a major glucosinolate (GSL), protects the body against several chronic diseases.
( Kim et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Sejong University
Jeonbuk National University
Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology
Asia Seed Company Limited, South Korea
Fragrant sorghum. No fragrant sorghums are currently on the market. Extraordinary aromatic smell in both seeds and leaves. Experiments showed that fragrant sorghum leaves were attractable for animal feeding.
( Zhang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Animal facility Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, China
Promoted anthocyanin accumulation. Anthocyanins are plant secondary metabolites with a variety of biological functions.
( Tu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northwest A&
F University, China
Reduced content of saturated fatty acids: low palmitic and high oleic acid. Great potential for improving peanut oil quality for human health.
(Tang et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Qingdao Agricultural University, China
Boosted cytokinin biosynthesis and elevated cucumber fruit wart formation. Warty fruit is an important quality trait that greatly affects market value and fruit appearance.
( Wang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Low erucic acid (EA) content. Composition of fatty acids affects the edible and processing quality of vegetable oils. EA is potentially to cause health problems.
( Liu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Altered lignin composition: decreased syringyl monolignol / guaiacylmonolignol (S/G) ratio. The monolignol ratio has been proposed to affect biomass recalcitrance and the resistance to plant disease.
(Cao et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
SouthwestUniversity, China
University of Wisconsin, USA
Increased grain weight and grain size. Carbohydrate and total protein levels also increased.
( Guo et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Sichuan Agricultural University, China
University of California, USA
Increased tolerance to the heavy metal Cadmium.
( Liu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University
Agricultural Ministry of China, China
Ultra-low nicotine level
( Burner et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
North Carolina State University, USA
Improved cadmium tolerance by reducing the Cd transport from vacuole to cytosol in tobacco leaves.
( Jia et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Henan Agricultural University
Xiamen University, China
Facilitated Isoproturon Metabolism and Detoxification: Improved growth, the Isoproturon (IPU)-induced cellular damage was attenuated, and IPU accumulation was significantly repressed
(Zhai et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanjing Agricultural University, China
Enhanced soybean aroma and functional marker for improving soybean flavor.
( Qian et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Science
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China
Zhejiang University of Technology
Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Amylose-free starch in tubers.
( Toinga-Villafuerte et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Texas A&
M University, USA
Specific differences in grain morphology, composition and (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan content. Barley rich in (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan, a source of fermentable dietary fibre, is useful to protect against various human health conditions. However, low grain (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan content is preferred for brewing and distilling.
( Garcia-Gimenez et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
The James Hutton Institute
University of Dundee, UK
University of Adelaide
La Trobe University, Australia
Increased NH4+ and PO43− uptake, and photosynthetic activity under high CO2 conditions in rice. Largely increased panicle weight. Improved grain appearance quality or a decrease in the number of chalky grains.
( Iwamoto et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Japan
Increased RS. Cereals high in RS may be beneficial to improve human health and reduce the risk of diet-related chronic diseases.
( Biswas et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Texas A&
M Univ.
Avance Biosciences Inc., USA
Reduced Cd accumulation.
( Chen et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
South China Agricultural University
Guangdong Academy of Sciences, China
Imrpoved rice eating and cooking quality with down-regulated rice grain protein content, which is negatively regulated to ECQ.
( Yang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Yangzhou University, China
Enhancing the accumulation of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, essential components of a healthy, balanced diet.
( Han et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Rothamsted Research, UK
Montana State University, USA
Enhanced oil composition. Increased oleic acid content and significant decreases in the less desirable polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid (i.e. a decrease from ~16% to <4%) and linolenic acid (a decrease from ~35% to <10%).
( Jiang et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Nebraska
University of California, USA
Mutant cell lines doubled the accumulation level of anthocyanins biosynthesized. The production of these important pigments was stabilized over time.
( D'Amelia et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Research Council of Italy
University of Naples Federico II
Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy

Traits related to storage performance

Increased shelf-life. Banana fruit has a high economic importance but will ripen and decay in one week after exogenous ethylene induction. Fast ripening limits its storage, transportation and marketing.
( Hu et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, China
Improved shelf life.
( Yu et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Science, China
Reduced fruit flesh browning. The browning of eggplant berry flesh after cutting has a negative impact on fruit quality for both industrial transformation and fresh consumption.
( Maioli et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Torino, Italy
Instituto de Biologica Molecular y Celular de Plantas (IBMCP)
Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain
Enhancement of flowering time. Petunia has become popular in the floriculture industry, however it is sensitive to ethylene, which causes flower senescence.
( Xu et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Kyungpook National University
Kangwon National University, South Korea
Improved cold storage and processing traits: reduced levels of acrylamide, reduced sugars.
(Clasen et al., 2017)
SDN1
TALENs
Cellectis Plant Science, USA
Reduced enzymatic browning. The formation of dark-colored precipitates in fruits and vegetables causes undesirable changes in organoleptic properties and the loss of nutritional quality.
( Gonzalez et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET)
Laboratorio de Agrobiotecnología (INTA)
Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Argentina
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden
Improved seed storability. Deterioration of rice grain reduces the quality of rice, resulting in serious economic losses for farmers.
( Ma et al., 2015 )
SDN1
TALENs
China Agricultural University, China
Improved shelf-life by targeting the genes modulating pectin degradation in ripening tomato.
( Wang et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of London
University of Leicester
University of Nottingham
University of Leeds, UK
International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia
Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
University of California, USA
Altering tomato fruit ripening and softening, key traits for fleshy fruit. During ripening, fruit will gradually soften which is largely the result of fruit cell wall degradation. Softening may improve the edible quality of fruit but also reduces fruit resistance to pathogenic microorganisms. Fruit softening can cause mechanical damage during storage and transportation as well, which can reduce the storage and shelf life, leading to fruit loss.
( Gao et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University
South China Agricultural University
Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
Zhejiang University
Beijing University of Agriculture, China
University of Nottingham, UK
Repressed fruit ripening by repressing ethylene production and lycopene accumulation.
( Li et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Delayed fruit ripening.
( Li et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanjing Agricultural University, China
University of Connecticut, USA
Controlling the rate of fruit softening to extend shelf life.
( Uluisik et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Nottingham
Royal Holloway University of London
Heygates Ltd
Syngenta Seeds
Sutton Bonington Campus, UK
Syngenta Crop Protection
University of California
Cornell University
Skidmore College, USA

Traits related to increased plant yield and growth

Increased fruit size. Highly branched inflorescence and formation of multiple flowers.
( Rodri­guez-Leal et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA
Semi-dwarf phenotype. High varieties are challenged by weak lodging and damages caused by storms, dwarf varieties are suitable for mechanized plant maintenance and fruit harvesting.
( Shao et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Hunan Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Sciences
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
University of Florida, USA
Increased shatter resistance to avoid seed loss during mechanical harvest.
( Braatz et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Germany
Increased seeds number per husk, higher seed weight.
( Yang et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Confer shoot architectural changes for increased resource inputs to increase crop yield.
( Stanic et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Calgary, Canada
SRM Institute of Technology, India
Improve plant architecture to increase yield. Plant height and branch number are directly correlated with yield.
( Zheng et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ministry of Agriculture, China
Wilkes University, USA
Semi-dwarf phenotype and compact architecture to increase yield. Plant height and branch angle are the major architectural factors determining yield.
( Fan et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, China
Wilkes University, USA
Improved root growth under high and low nitrogen conditions.
( Wang et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Anhui Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Only female flowers. Allows earlier production of hybrids, higher yield, and more concentrated fruit set.
( Hu et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,
China
High temperature germination. Large increases in the maximum temperature for seed germination to allow for the cultivation of the crop in production areas with higher temperature.
( Bertier et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of California, USA
Increased grain yield under field drought stress conditions and no yield loss under well-watered conditions.
( Shi et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
DuPont Pioneer, USA
Early flowering under long day conditions of higher latitudes to spread production of maize over a broad range of latitudes rapidly.
( Huang et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Wisconsin, USA
Improvement of yield by reducing the "easy to shatter" trait. Reduced seed shattering ensures better stability during the harvesting processes and improved yields.
( Sheng et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hunan Agricultural University
Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center
Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Increased yield under different environmental conditions: well-watered, drought, normal nitrogen and low nitrogen field conditions and at multiple geographical locations.
(Wang et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Sinobioway Bio-Agriculture Group Co.
Ltd
Corteva Agriscience
Johnston, USA
Improved rice photosynthetic efficiency and yield: increased light saturation points, stomatal conductance, light tolerance and photosynthetic yields.
(Ye et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
South China Agricultural University, China
Semi-dwarf phenotype to improve product and lodging resistance.
( Zhang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Increased yield potential by nitrogen use efficiency. Nitrogen fertilizer has been applied broadly to increase yield. However, low nitrogen use efficiency causes environmental pollution and ecological deterioration by the nitrogen fertilizers.
( Zhang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Zhengzhou University, China
Improved grain yield by modulating pyruvate enzymes and cell cycle proteins, leading to increased grain size. The grain size is a major determinant for rice yield and a vital trait for domestication and breeding.
( Usman et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guangxi University
South China Agricultural University, China
Improved yield and fragrance.
( Usman et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guangxi University
South China Agricultural University, China
Early flowering and maturity. Flowering time (heading date) is an important trait for crop yield and cultivation.
( Wang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Sinobioway Bio-Agriculture Group, Co., China
Corteva™ Agriscience, USA
Improved high-density yield and drought/osmotic stress tolerance.
( Chen et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Texas Tech University, USA
Regulate shade avoidance. Soybean displays the classic shade avoidance syndrome (SAS), which leads to yield reduction and lodging under density farming conditions.
( Lyu et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Jilin Agricultural University
Shandong Agricultural University
Northeast Agricultural University, China
Increasing the number of seeds per pod (NSPP), an important yield determinant.
( Cai et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
South China Agricultural University, China
Control flowering time, an important determinant for soybean yield and adaptation.
( Li et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Guangzhou University
Agronomy College of Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University
Nanjing Agricultural University
Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Late flowering. Photoperiod sensitivity limits geographical range of cultivation.
( Cai et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Bushy phenotype and increased tiller production.
( Liu et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Iowa State University, USA
Improve biomass yield and salinity tolerance.
( Guan et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University
Shandong institute of agricultural sustainable development
Beijing Sure Academy of Biosciences, China
Oklahoma State University, USA
Improved plant architecture: increased shoot branching, reduced plant height, increased number of leaves and nodes and reduced total plant biomass.
(Gao et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Southwest University
Yunnan Academy of Tobacco Agricultural Sciences, China
Haploid induction to accelerate breeding in crop plants.
( Kelliher et al., 2017 )
SDN1
TALENs
Syngenta Seeds, USA
Enhancing grain-yield-related traits by increases in meristem size
( Liu et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cold Spring Harbor
University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA
Improved field performance: higher yield, producing on average 5.5 bushels per acre more. Waxy corn.
(Gao et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Corteva Agriscience, USA
Plant architecture: high tillering and reduced height.
(Butt et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia
Improved nitrogen use efficiency.
( Li et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
University of California, USA
Improvement of grain weight. Longer panicle.
( Xu et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China National Rice Research Institute, China
China Three Gorges University, China
Altered grain number per panicle and increased seed weight.
( Li et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Altered grain number per panicle.
( Shen et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Rice Research Institute, China
Increased seed weight.
( Hu et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Fudan University, China
Increased seed weight.
( Shen et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Yangzhou University, China
Increased seed weight.
( Ji et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Agronomy College of Henan Agricultural University, China
Genetic diversity.
( Shen et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Yangzhou University, China
Promote outgrowth buds and increase tiller number.
( Lu et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Wuhan Institute of Bioengineering
Huazhong Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Generating male sterility lines (MLS). Using MLS in hybrid seed production for monoclinous crops reduces costs and ensures high purity of the varieties because it does not produce pollen and has exserted stigmas. Complete abolition of pollen development.
( Lee et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Kyung Hee University, South Korea
Generating male sterility lines (MLS). Using MLS in hybrid seed production for monoclinous crops reduces costs and ensures high purity of the varieties because it does not produce pollen and has exserted stigmas.
( Li et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Generating male sterility lines (MLS). Using MLS in hybrid seed production for monoclinous crops reduces costs and ensures high purity of the varieties because it does not produce pollen and has exserted stigmas.
( Xie et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
South China Agricultural University, China
Regulation of pollen tube growth. The tube grows in female reproductive tissues to transport two sperm cells into the embryo sac for double fertilization during sexual reproduction.
( Liu et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Increased grain number per main panicle and an increased seed settling rate.
( Qian et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Grain yield, regulation of seed development.
( Yuan et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanjing Agricultural University, China
Generation of important yield-related trait characteristics: dense and erect panicles and reduced plant height.
(Wang et al., 2017)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Syngenta Biotechnology, China
Regulating fruit ripening, one of the most important concerns in the study of fleshy fruit species.
( Ito et al., 2015 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Food Research Institute, Japan
Bigger seedlings.
( Lor et al., 2014 )
SDN1
TALENs
University of Minnesota, USA
Early flowering. Day-light sensitivity limited the geographical range of cultivation.
( Soyk et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, USA
Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Germany
Université Paris-Scalay, France
Promote growth of axillary buds. Lateral branches develop from the axillary buds. The number of side branches is very important to plant architecture, which influences the yield and quality of the plant.
( Li et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guizhou University
Northwest A&
F University
Shandong Agricultural University
Northeast Agricultural University
Shanxi University, China
Oxford University
University of Bedfordshire, UK
Control meristem size to increase fruit yield.
( Yuste-Lisbona et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Universidad de Almería
Universitat Politècnica de València–Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas
Spain
Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research
Thünen Institute of Forest Genetics, Germany
Université Paris-Saclay, France
Altered spike architecture and grain treshability to increase grain production.
( Liu et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Bigger grains, increased grain weight.
( Zhang et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Faster seedling growth.
( Zhou et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Maryland, USA
Reduced seed dormancy: rapid and uniform germination of seeds is important for rice production. Mutant seeds began to germinate 1 day after sowing, while WT seeds needed 2 days.
(Jung et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hankyong National University
Chungbuk National University
Hanyang University, China
Central Luzon State University, Philippines
Plants with longer primary roots and more crown roots, as well as increased sensitivity to auxins and cytokinins. The rice root system is important for growth.
( Mao et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Fudan University
Sichuan Agricultural University
Shanghai Normal University
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Plant development. Phenotypes consistent with increased GA response: tall and slender with light green vegetation.
(Lor et al., 2014)
SDN1
TALENs
University of Minnesota, USA
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
Increase in floral organ number or fruit size, conferring enhanced tomato fruit yield.
( Rodriguez-Leal et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA
Helical and vine-like growth. Helical growth is an economical way for plant to obtain resources.
( Yang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Semi-dwarf phenotype. Plant height is an important agronomic trait of rice, it directly affects the yield potential and lodging resistance.
( Han et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guangxi University
South China Agricultural University
Guangxi University, China
Semi-dwarf phenotype with desired agronomic traits: tolerance to low phosporus levels and broad-spectrum resistance to diseases and insects.
(Hu et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China National Rice Research Institute, China
Range of beneficial phenotypes: additional tillers and smaller culms and panicles.
(Cui et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China National Rice Research Institute
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Yangzhou University, Nagoya University, Japan
Positive regulation for grain dormancy. Lack of grain dormancy in cereal crops causes losses in yield and quality because of preharvest sprouting.
( Lawrenson et al., 2015 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Norwich Research Park, UK
Murdoch University, Australia
Combine agronomically desirable traits with useful traits present in wild lines. Threefold increase in fruit size and a tenfold increase in fruit number. Fruit lycopene accumulation is improved by 500% compared with the widely cultivated S. lycopersicum.
( Zsögön et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Universidade Federal de Viçosa
Universidade de São Paulo Paulo, Brazil
University of Minnesota, USA
Universität Münster, Germany
Customize tomato cultivars for urban agriculture: increased compactness and decreased growth cycle of tomato plants.
(Kwon et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Cornell University
University of Florida, USA
Wonkwang University, South Korea
Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel
Increased plant yield due to architectural changes. Leaf inclination: maize plants with upright leaves can be planted at higher densities without shading.
(Brekke et al., 2011)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Iowa State University, USA
Increased bending strength. Stalk lodging, which is generally determined by stalk strength, results in considerable yield loss and has become a primary threat to maize yield under high-density planting.
( Zhang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Iowa State University, USA
Increased density by early-flowering phenotype under long-day conditions.
( Li et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shandong Agricultural University
South China Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, China
Semi-dwarf phenotype with increased lodging resistance.
( Zhang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Altered plant architecture to inrease yield: increased node number on the main stem and branch number.
(Bao et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Duy Tan University, Vietnam
RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, Japan
Increased nodule numbers. Soybean is a globally important crop for oil production and protein for human diet.
( Bai et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
Nanchang University, China
Early-flowering varieties. The timing of flowering is an important event in the life cycle of flowering plants.
( Jiang et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hunan Agricultural University, China
Université de Strasbourg, France
Improved rice grain shape and appearance quality. Potential application in breeding of rice varieties with optimized grain morphologies. Slender grain shape.
( Zhao et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Yangzhou University, China
Increased yield.
( Zhou et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
Xichang University, China
University of Maryland, USA
Promoted rice growth and productivity.
( Miao et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Purdue University, USA
Increased yield.
( Huang et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Yunnan University
Chinese Academy of Sciences
BGI-Baoshan, China
Improvement for larger kernel and yield.
( Ma et al., 2015 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northwest A &
F University
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Increased grain size and modulated shoot architecture.
( Miao et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang A&
F University
Nanchang University
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Purdue University, USA
Dwarf phenotype. Tomatoes with compact growth habits and reduced plant height can be useful in some environments.
( Tomlinson et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Norwich Research Park, UK
University of Minnesota, USA
Dwarf stature and a lesion-mimic phenotype. Fungal resistance: enhanced resistance to the pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Increased content of salicylic acid and induced plant defense responses.
(Ma et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Peking University
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Dwarf phenotype.
( Lawrenson et al., 2015 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Norwich Research Park, UK
Murdoch University, USA
Rapid improvement of domestication traits and genes that control plant architecture, flower production and fruit size. Major productivity traits are improved in an orphan crop.
( Lemmon et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cold Spring Harbor
The Boyce Thompson Institute
Cornell University, USA
Dwarf phenotype to improve crop yield: lodging-resistant, compact, and perform well under high-density planting.
(Sun et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shenyang Agricultural University
National &
Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Northern Horticultural Facilities Design &
Application Technology
College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, China
Dwarf and high tillering phenotypes.
( Yang et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shenzhen University
The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China
Improved grain yield by promoting outgrowth buds and increasing tiller number.
( Lu et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Wuhan Institute of Bioengineering
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Increased yield potential trough improved nitrogen use efficiency. Enhanced tolerance to N starvation, and showed delayed senescence and increased grain yield in field conditions. Lowered use of N fertilizer.
( Zhang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Zhengzhou University, China
Increased spikelet number and delayed heading date. Two traits that are crucial and correlated to yield in wheat.
( Chen et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Induced erect leaf habit and shoot growth for a more efficient light penetration into lower canopy layers.
( Fladung et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Thünen Institute of Forest Genetics, Germany
Increased total kernel number or kernel weight.
( Kelliher et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Research Triangle Park
University of Georgia, USA
Syngenta Crop Protection, The Netherlands
Increase in plant height, tiller number, grain protein content and yield. 1.5- to 2.8-fold increase in total chlorophyll content in the flag leaf at the grain filling stage. Delayed senescence by 10–14 days. High nitrogen content in shoots under low nitrogen conditions.
( Karunarathne et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Murdoch University
Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Australia
Increased rice grain size and yield.
( Wang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China National Seed Group Co. Ltd., China
Improved pod shattering resistance. Pod shattering has been a negatively selected trait in soybean domestication and breeding as it can lead to devastating yield loss of soybean.
( Zhang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University
Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, China
Improved grain length and weight by promoting cell proliferation.
( Wu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chongqing University, China
Increased spine density. The “numerous spines (ns)” cucumber varieties are popular in Europe and West Asia.
( Liu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Longer grains and increased glume cell length.
( Sheng et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Increased tassel branch number (TBN), one of the important agronomic traits that contribute to the efficiency of seed production.
( Guan et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Overexpression causes strongly promoted stem elongation, lower expression resulted in dwarf phenotype.
( Mu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Improved grain length and weight by promoting cell proliferation in spikelet hull
( Wu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chongqing University, China
Altered spike architecture.
( de Souza Moraes et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Wageningen University and Research, The Netherlands
Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil
Norwich Research Park, UK
Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, Germany
Increased grain weight and grain size. Carbohydrate and total protein levels also increased.
( Guo et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Sichuan Agricultural University, China
University of California, USA
Altering leaf inclination angle which has the potential to elevate yield in high-density plantings.
( Brant et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Florida
DOE Center for Advanced Bioenergy and Bioproducts Innovation, USA
Kastamonu University, Turkey
Improved grain quality without severe yield penalty under nitrogen reduction conditions.
( He et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Rice Research Institute of Shenyang Agricultural University
Tianjin Tianlong Science and Technology Co. LTD.
National Japanica Rice Research and Development Center, China
Promoting nodulation: up-regulation of expression levels of genes involved in nodulation. Nitrogen-fixing symbiotic nodules strongly up regulate yield.
(Wang et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Beijing Institute of Technology
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Root growth angle regulation, among the most important determinants of root system architecture. Root growth angle controls water uptake capacity, stress resilience, nutrient use efficiency and thus yield of crop plants.
( Kirschner et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Bonn
University of Cologne
Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research Gatersleben
Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Germany
University of Bologna, Italy

Enhanced rice grain yield by decoupling panicle number and size
( Song et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Shandong Agricultural University
Hainan Yazhou Bay Seed Laboratory, China
Regulated inflorescence and flower development. More flowers and more fruit produced upon vibration-assisted fertilization.
( Hu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Université de Toulouse, France
Chongqing University, China
Enhanced photosynthesis and increases seed yield.
( Hu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanjing Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Henan Institute of Science and Technology, China
Compact architecture with a smaller petiole angle than wild-type plants.
( Zhang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
Beijing Vocational College of Agriculture
Xiamen University, China
Optimum increase in phloem-transportation capacity leads to improved sink strength in tomato to increase agricultural crop production.
( Nam et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Pohang University of Science and Technology
Wonkwang University, South Korea
More flowers in both determinate and indeterminate cultivars and more produced fruit.
( Hu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Université de Toulouse
Université Bordeaux, France
Chongqing University, China
Transformation of a climbing woody perennial, developing axillary inflorescences after many years of juvenility, into a compact plant with rapid terminal flower and fruit development.
( Varkonyi-Gasic et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
The New Zealand Institute for Plant &
Food Research Limited (Plant &
Food Research), University of Auckland, New Zealand
Increased seed number per silique, which increases the mustard yield per plant.
( Wang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Conferred lodging resistance. Tef is a staple food, and valuable cash crop in Ethiopia. Lodging is a major limitation to its production.
( Beyene et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Donald Danforth Plant Science Center
Corteva Agriscience
Michigan State University, USA
Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Ethiopia
Increased grain yield without side effect.
( Gho et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Kyung Hee University, South Korea
International Rice Research Institute, Philippines
Enhanced sink strength in tomato, improving fruit setting, and yield contents.
( Nam et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Pohang University of Science and Technology
Wonkwang University, South Korea
Enhanced performance of soybean under dense conditions.
( Ji et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Southern University of Science and Technology, China
Enhanced photosynthesis and decreased leaf angles for improved plant architecture and high yields.
( An et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Increased leaf yield of lettuce by delaying the onset of flowering.
( Choi et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology
Korea University of Science and Technology, South Korea
Regulated sepal growth
( Xing et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Zhejiang University, China
University of Nottingham, UK
Increased water use efficiency, a promising approach for achieving sustainable crop production in changing climate scenarios.
( Blankenagel et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Technical University of Munich, Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology
Helmholtz Center Munich
Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf
Production of enlarged, dome-shaped leaves. Enlarged fruits with increased pericarp thickness due to cell expansion.
( Swinnen et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ghent University
Center for Plant Systems Biology, Vives, Belgium
Université de Bordeaux, France
Improved rice yield and immunity.
( Li et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China

Higher yield than wild-type (WT) plants due to increased grain number per panicle, elevated grain weight, and enhanced harvest index.
( Wei et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Shanghai Normal University, China
Increased water use efficiency without growth reductions in well-watered conditions.
( Blankenagel et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Technical University of Munich
Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology
German Research Center for Environmental Health
KWS SAAT SE &
Co.KGaA
Université Technique de Munich
Heinrich Heine University, Germany
LEPSE - Écophysiologie des Plantes sous Stress environnementaux, France
Early flowering. Certain mutants also showed following phenotypes: determinate flowering, shorter stature and/or basal branching.
(Bellec et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Université Paris-Saclay, France
Significantly improved photosynthesis and decreased leaf angles. The plant architecture is ideal for dense planting.
( An et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China

Traits related to industrial utilization

Manipulation of flowering time to develop cultivars with desired maturity dates. Stabilization of flowering time and period supports efficient mechanised harvesting.
( Ahmar et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Generating male sterility lines (MLS). Using MLS in hybrid seed production for monoclinous crops reduces costs and ensures high purity of the varieties because it does not produce pollen and has exserted stigmas.
( Svitashev et al., 2015 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
DuPont Pioneer, USA
Generating male sterility lines (MLS). Using MLS in hybrid seed production for monoclinous crops reduces costs and ensures high purity of the varieties because it does not produce pollen and has exserted stigmas.
( Xie et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Science and Technology
Beijing, China
Beijing Solidwill Sci-Tech Co. Ltd, China
Generating male sterility lines (MLS). Using MLS in hybrid seed production for monoclinous crops reduces costs and ensures high purity of the varieties because it does not produce pollen and has exserted stigmas.
( Li et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Generating male sterility lines (MLS). Using MLS in hybrid seed production reduces costs and ensures high purity of the varieties because it does not produce pollen and has exserted stigmas.
( Li et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Peking University Institute of Advanced Agricultural Sciences
Peking University
Beijing Key Laboratory of Plant Gene Resources and Biotechnology for Carbon Reduction and Environmental Improvement, China
Bio-fuel production: Reduced lignin content, improves cell wall composition for production of bio-ethanol.
(Jung et al., 2016)
SDN1
TALENs
Korea University, South Korea
University of Florida, USA
Bio-fuel production: Reduced lignin content and improved sugar release.
(Park et al., 2017)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Noble Research Institute, USA
Reduced lignin content and S (syringyl lignin)/G (guaiacyl lignin) (S/G) ratio alteration to reduce cell wall recalcitrance and improve bioethanol production. Lignin is a major component of secondary cell walls and contributes to the recalcitrance problem during fermentation.
( Park et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation
BioEnergy Science Center
University of Tennessee, USA
Nicotine-free tobacco.
( Schachtsiek et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
TU Dortmund University, Germany
Hairy root transformation. Hairy roots play a role in multiple processes, ranging from recombinant protein production and metabolic engineering to analyses of rhizosphere physiology and biochemistry.
( Ron et al., 2014 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of California
Emory University, USA
University of Cambridge, UK
Male sterility for hybrid seed production reduces costs and ensures high varietal purity.
( Du et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences
Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, China
Generating male sterility lines (MLS). Using MLS in hybrid seed production reduces costs and ensures high purity of the varieties because it does not produce pollen and has exserted stigmas.
( Jung et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hankyong National University
Hanyang University
Sunchon National University
Chungbuk National University
Tomato Research Center, South Korea
Increasing cross over frequency. Cross over formation during meiosis is essential for crop breeding to introduce favourable alleles controlling important traits from wild relatives into crops.
( de Maagd et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Wageningen University &
Research, The Netherlands
Generating male sterility lines (MLS). Using MLS in hybrid seed production reduces costs and ensures high purity of the varieties because it does not produce pollen and has exserted stigmas.
( Liu et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northwest A&
F University
Xi’an Jinpeng Seedlings Co. Ltd.
Hybrid Rapeseed Research Center of Shaanxi Province, China
Fertility recovery of male sterility in wheat lines with excelling agronomic and economic traits for breeding purpose, as male-sterile plants cannot be used for selection.
( Tang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
China Agricultural University, China
Improve biofuel production by mediating lignin modification. Lignocellulosic biomasses are an abundant renewable source of carbon energy. Heterogenous properties of lignocellulosic biomass and intrinsic recalcitrance caused by cell wall lignification lower the biorefinery efficiency. Reduced lignin content is desired.
( Lee et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST)
University of Science and Technology (UST)
Daejeon, South Korea
Increased monounsaturated fatty acid contents (MUFAs). Due to their higher thermal-oxidative stability and viscosity relative to other common fatty acids, MUFAs are preferred for industrial uses, for example as biolubricants and biodiesel fuels.
( Lee et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Institute of Agricultural Sciences
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Chonnam National University
Plant Engineering Research Institute, South Korea
Self-incompatibility to prevent inbreeding in hermaphrodite angiosperms via the rejection of self-pollen.
( Dou et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Confer male and female sterility to prevent the risk of trasgene flow from transgenic plants to their wild relatives.
( Shinoyama et al., 2020 )
SDN1
TALENs
Fukui Agricultural Experiment Station
Institute of Agrobiological Sciences
National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO)
Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)
Yokohama City University, Japan
Altai State University, Russia
Trait stacking. Modern agriculture demands crops carrying multiple traits.
( Ainley et al., 2013 )
SDN1
ZFN
Dow AgroSciences LLC
Sangamo BioSciences, Inc., USA
Conferring water logging tolerance for further expansion of the cultivation area.
( Abdullah et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Faculty of Agriculture
University of Nottingham
Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
Manipulation of the biosynthesis of bioactive compound alkaloids. Poppy produces many benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) used in biomedicines.
( Alagoz et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cankiri Karatekin University
Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey
Stem wood discoloration due to lignin reduction.
( Zhou et al., 2015 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Georgia, USA
Complete reproductive sterility to prevent the spread of highly domesticated, exotic or genetically modified organisms into wild populations.
( Azeez et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Michigan Technological University, USA
Confer male sterility for hybrid seed production. Male sterility is an important trait, especially for self-pollinated crops such as rice.
( Ma et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
South China Agricultural University, China
Generation of male-sterile hexaploid wheat lines for use in hybrid seed production. The development and adoption of hybrid seed technology have led to dramatic increases in agricultural productivity.
( Okada et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
The University of Adelaide, Australia
Huaiyin Normal University, China
Complete male sterility. The generation, restoration, and maintenance of male sterile lines are the key issues for large-scale commercial hybrid seed production.
( Li et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Peking University Institute of Advanced Agricultural Sciences
School of Advanced Agriculture Sciences and School of Life Sciences
Beijing Key Laboratory of Plant Gene Resources and Biotechnology for Carbon Reduction and Environmental Improvement, China
Generation of a new thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice line for hybrid breeding of indica rice.
( Barman et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China National Rice Research Institute, China
Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Bangladesh
Fertility restoration of cytoplasmic male sterility.
( Suketomo et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Tohoku University, Japan
Male sterility and decreased total fatty acid content in the anther.
( Basnet et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University
Yangtze University, China
Generate self-compatible diploid potato lines for the application of efficient breeding methods.
( Enciso-Rodriguez et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Michigan State University, USA
Domestication: Conferred domesticated phenotypes yet retained parental disease resistance (predominately Xanthomonas perforans), and salt tolerance.
(Li et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Development of commercial thermosensitive genic male sterile lines to accelerate hybrid rice breeding.
( Zhou et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources
Key Laboratory of Plant Functional Genomics and Biotechnology of Guangdong Provincial Higher Education Institutions
South China Agricultural University
China National Hybrid Rice R&
D Center, China
Asexual propagation trough seeds. Induction of apomeiosis, mitosis instead of meiosis. This proces leads to the production of genetically identical seeds, serving many applications in plant breeding.
( Khanday et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of California
Innovative Genomics Institute
Iowa State University, USA
Université Paris-Saclay, France
Genetic variability. The genetically reprogrammed rice plants can act as donor lines to stabilize important agronomic traits or can be a potential resource to create more segregating population.
( K et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Agricultural Sciences
Regional Centre for Biotechnology, India
Creation of photoperiod-/thermo-sensitive genic male-sterile (P/TGMS) lines, important for commercial rice breeding. P/TGMS rice lines are useful germplasm resources for two-line hybrid breeding.
( Lan et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Generating male sterility lines (MLS). Using MLS in hybrid seed production for monoclinous crops reduces costs and ensures high purity of the varieties because it does not produce pollen and has exserted stigmas.
( Li et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Peking University Institute of Advanced Agricultural Sciences
School of Advanced Agriculture Sciences and School of Life Sciences
Peking University
Beijing Key Laboratory of Plant Gene Resources and Biotechnology for Carbon Reduction and Environmental Improvement,China
Removal of methyl iodide emissions. The release of methyl iodide in the athmospere causes ozone depletion and thus represents an important environmental threat.
( Carlessi et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
PlantLab
Institute of Life Sciences
Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna
University of Pisa
University of Milan, Italy
Enhanced biomass saccharification by altered lignin biosynthesis. The intrinsic recalcitrance of lignocellulose residues requires high energy input for bioethanol production.
( Zhang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University
Hubei University of Arts &
Science
Guangxi University, China
Prolonged basic vegetative growth periods for flexible cropping systems in southern China, as well as in other low-latitude regions. Most of the mid-latitude varities were sensitive to temperature or photoperiod, resulting in low grain yield when cultivated in low-latitude regions.
( Wu et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Fujian Agricultural and Forestry University
Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Minjiang University, China
Accelerated domestication of African rice landraces by improving domestication traits such as sheed shattering, lodging and seed yield. The acceleration of the development of high-yield African landrace varieties is important considering that Africa has a strong growing population and prone to food shortage.
( Lacchini et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Milan, Italy
University of Montpellier, France
Generation of male sterility lines. Heterosis, the breeding result in which heterozygous hybrid progeny are superior to both homozygous parents, depends on the selection and application of male-sterile lines (MSL). Using MSL can reduce the production cost of hybrid seeds and improve its quality.
( Chen et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Jilin Agricultural University
Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Control photoperiodic flowering to allow adaptation of cultivars. Flowering time is a critical characteristic to determine the geographic distribution and regional adaptability of soybean.
( Wang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Male sterility. Important genetic resources for commercial hybrid seed production.
( Zhang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,
Generating male sterility lines (MSL). MS is the absence or non-function of pollen grain in plant or incapability of plants to produce or release functional pollen grains. Using MS lines eliminates the process of mechanical emasculation in hybrid seed production.
( Zou et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Sichuan Agricultural University, China
Induction of haploid plants for the development of good inbred lines for efficient and fast breeding.
( Liu et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Early-flowering.
( Jeong et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Department of Biological Science
Seoul National University
Chungnam National University
Institute for Basic Science
Kangwon National University
Kyunghee University, South Korea
Generation of male sterile (MS) lines. MS is a useful tool to harness hybrid vigor for hybrid seed production.
( Chen et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
China Agricultural University, China
Rapid generation of male sterile (MS) bread wheat. MS is an important tool in creating hybrid crop varieties that provide a yield advantage over traditional varieties by harnessing heterosis.
( Singh et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
DuPont Pioneer, USA
Jointless tomatoes. Pedicel abscission is an important agronomic factor that controls yield and post-harvest fruit quality. In tomato, floral stems that remain attached to harvested fruits during picking mechanically damage the fruits during transportation, decreasing the fruit quality for fresh-market tomatoes and the pulp quality for processing tomatoes.
( Roldan et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Institute of Plant Sciences Paris-Saclay (IPS2), France
University of Liège, Belgium
Gynoecious phenotype: only female flowers. Advantageous trait for production of hybrid seed by bees under spatial isolation, because it avoids hand emasculation and hand pollination.
(Zhang et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Beijing Key Laboratory of Vegetable Germplasm Improvement
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering Planning and Design, China
Albino phenotype, self-incompatibility and male sterility.
( Ma et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Southwest University, China
Rescued male fertility. Hybrids between divergent populations commonly show hybrid sterility; this reproductive barrier hinders hybrid breeding of the japonica and indica rice subspecies.
( Shen et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources
Key Laboratory of Plant Functional Genomics and Biotechnology of Guangdong Provincial Higher Education Institutions
South China Agricultural University, China
Manipulation of self-incompatibility.
( Zhang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Aarhus University
DLF Seeds A/S, Denmark
Rubber biosynthesis. To accelerate the domestication of Taraxacum kok-saghyz (TK), a plant notable for its ability to produce high molecular weight rubber in its roots and which might be an alternative source of natural rubber.
( Iaffaldano et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, USA
Enhanced haploid induction. Double haploid breeding based on in vivo haploid induction has been extensively used in maize breeding. The production of haploids depends on haploid inducers.
( Zhong et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Enabled clonal reproduction trough seeds. Application of the method may enable self-propagation of a broad range of elite F1 hybrid crops.
( Wang et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Université Paris-Saclay, France
Early maturity of rice varieties. Rice is a tropical short-day plant. The northward cultivation in China is accompanied with daylength extension and temperature decrease, which are unfavorable for rice, to complete flowering and seed setting.
( Li et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Conversion of hulled into naked barley.
( Gasparis et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Research Institute
Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), Poland
Glycoproteins without plant-specific glycans. Plants or plant cells can be used to produce pharmacological glycoproteins, for example antibodies or vaccines. However these proteins carry N-glycans with plant-typical residues [β(1,2)-xylose and core α(1,3)-fucose]. This plant-specific glycans can greatly impact the immunogenicity, allergenicity, or activity of the protein.
( Mercx et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Université catholique de Louvain
Université de Liège, Belgium
Delayed flowering time.
( Hong et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, South Korea
Bioethanol production: Improved saccharification efficiency without compromising biomass yield.
(Kannan et al., 2017)
SDN1
TALENs
University of Florida
Novozymes North America Inc, USA
Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), South Korea
Improved saccharification efficiency by an altered cell wall architecture.
( Nayeri et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shahid Beheshti University
University of Tabriz, Iran
Establishment of maternal haploid induction. Doubled haploid technology is used to obtain homozygous lines in a single generation. This technique significantly accelerates the crop breeding trajectory.
( Zhong et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Wageningen University and Research, The Netherlands
Establishment of maternal haploid induction. Doubled haploid technology is used to obtain homozygous lines in a single generation. This technique significantly accelerates the crop breeding trajectory.
( Zhong et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Wageningen University and Research, The Netherlands
Late flowering time.
( Li et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University
China Zhejiang Zhengjingyuan Pharmacy Chain Co., Ltd. &
Hangzhou Zhengcaiyuan Pharmaceutical Co., China
Haploid induction.
( Li et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University
Longping Agriculture Science Co. Ltd., China
Male sterility.
( Zhang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northwest A&
F University, China
Accelerated abscission. Plant organ abscission is a process important for development and reproductive success,
( Liu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shenyang Agricultural University
Key Laboratory of Protected Horticulture of Ministry of Education, China
University of California at Davis
Crops Pathology and Genetic Research Unit, USA
Thermosensitive genic male sterile lines with high blast resistance and fragrance quality. Resources for hybrid rice breeding.
( Liang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China National Rice Research Institute, China
Parthenocarpy: seedless tomatoes
(Nieves-Cordones et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura-CSIC, Spain
35% reduction in lignin. Fourfold increase in cellulose-to-glucose conversion upon limited saccharification. Efficient saccharification is hindered by the presence of lignin in the secondary-thickened cell walls.
( de Vries et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ghent University
VIB Center for Plant Systems Biology, Belgium
Reduced lignin content and increased sugar release upon saccharification.
( De Meester et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ghent University
VIB Center for Plant Systems Biology, Belgium
Tailoring poplar lignin without yield penalty. Reduced recalcitrance.
( e Meester et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ghent University
VIB Center for Plant Systems Biology
VIB Metabolomics Core, Belgium
Male sterility: mutants did not produce pollen and induced a parthenocarpic fruit set.
(Gökdemir et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ondokuz Mayıs University
Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Turkey
Enhanced biological nitrogen fixation to reduce the use of inorganic nitrogen fertilizers. Enhanced biofilm formation of soil diazotrophic bacteria by modified root microbiome structure.
( Yan et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of California
Bayer Crop Science, USA

Traits related to product color/flavour

Purple color.
( Xu et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanjing Agricultural University, China
Crop modification: albino phenotype.
(Wang et al., 2017)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
University of Pennsylvania, USA
Flower color modification to a pale purplish pink flower color compared to the purple violet wild type.
( Yu et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hanyang University
Chungnam National University, South Korea
Fruit coloration. Fruit color affects consumer preference and is one of the breeding objectives of great interests. For example, white-fruited cultivars are sold at a much higher price than red-fruited cultivars.
( Gao et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
University of Maryland, USA
Pink fruit color.
( Deng et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Color modification: pink tomatoes.
(Yang et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, China
Color modification due to reduced anthocyanin accumulation.
( Klimek-Chodacka et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Agriculture in Krakow, Poland
East Carolina University
University of Maryland, USA
Flower color modification due to reduced anthocyanin content. Flower color is one of the most important traits in ornamental flowers.
( Nishihara et al. (2018) )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Iwate Biotechnology Research Center, Japan
Albino phenotype.
( Charrier et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Université d'
Angers, France
Colour shift. The poinsettia belongs to most economically important potted ornamental plants. Customers are willing to pay higher prices for unusual varieties.
( Nitarska et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Technische Universität Wien, Austria
Klemm+Sohn GmbH &
Co
Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany
Albinism and dwarfing.
( Naim et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Queensland University of Technology, Australia
Albino phenotype.
( Wilson et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
NIAB EMR, UK
Albino phenotype.
( Syombua et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
University of Nairobi, Kenya
University of Missouri
Iowa State University
Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, USA
Color modification: yellow. Ipomoea nil exhibits a variety of flower colours, except yellow.
(Watanabe et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Tsukuba
National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Japan
Albino phenotype.
( Kaur et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute (NABI), India
Albino phenotype
( Bánfalvi et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
NARIC Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, Hungary
Red rice. The pigments of coloured rice contain high levels of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins which have been recognized as health-promoting nutrients.
( Zhu et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Xiamen University
Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Minjiang University, China
Albino phenotype. Diversity in fruit color. Watermelon is an important fruit croup throughout the world.
( Tian et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Beijing Key Laboratory of Vegetable Germplasm Improvement
China Agricultural University
Beijing University of Agriculture, China
Albino phenotype.
( Wilson et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
NIAB EMR, UK
Albino phenotype and early flowering.
( Charrier et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Université d'
Angers, France
Albino phenotype.
( Wang et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Botany
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Botany
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Altered color of petals and leaves.
( Li et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University
Hubei Hongshan Laboratory, China
Fine-tuned anthocyanin biosynthesis.
( )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northeast Forestry University, Horticultural Sub-academy of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Wonsan University of Agriculture, South Korea
Albino phenotype.
( De Bruyn et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Flanders Research Institute for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (ILVO)
Ghent University
Center for Plant Systems Biology Belgium
Albino phenotype.
( Brewer et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Florida, USA

Traits related to biotic stress tolerance

Viral resistance: Highly efficient resistance against wheat dwarf virus (WDV), an economically important virus. WDV infect both wheat and barley causing severe yield losses. The natural resistance resources are limited.
(Kis et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Pannonia
Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Eötvös Loránd University University
Szent István University, Hungary
Viral resistance: Enhanced resistance to sweet potato virus disease (SPVD). SPVD is caused by the co-infection of sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV) and sweet potato feathery mottle virus.
(Yu et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Jiangsu Normal University
Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Xuzhou Institute of Agricultural Sciences in Jiangsu Xuhuai District, China
Fungal resistance: enhanced resistance to Phytophthora infestans. Phytophthora infestans causes late blight disease, which is severely damaging to the global tomato industry
(Hong et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Dalian University of Technology
Beijing Academy of Agriculture &
Forestry Sciences
Shenyang Agricultural University/Key Laboratory of Protected Horticulture, China
Fungal resistance: Enhanced resistance to the pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.
(Sun et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Yangzhou University, China
Viral resistance: increased resistance to infection with the potato virus Y (PVY) and tolerance to salt and osmotic stress. PVY is one of the most economically important potato pathogens
(Makhotenko et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Russia Moscow State University, Russia
Doka Gene Technologies Ltd, USA
Viral resistance: improved resistance against tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). TYLCV causes significant economic losses in tomato production worldwide.
(Faal et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
Bacterial resistance: Increased resistance to Erwinia amylovora, causing fire blight disease that threatens the apple and a wide range of ornamental and commercial Rosaceae host plants.
(Malnoy et al., 2016)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Fondazione Edmund Mach, Italy
ToolGen Inc.
Institute for Basic Science
Seoul National University, South Korea
Fungal resistance: increased resistance to Erysiphe necator, causing powdery mildew in grape cultivar. The pathogen infects all green tissues and berries, leading to dramatic losses in yield and berry quality.
(Malnoy et al., 2016)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Fondazione Edmund Mach, Italy
ToolGen Inc.
Institute for Basic Science
Seoul National University
South Korea
Enhanced resistance to insects, no serotonin production and higher salicylic acid levels. Rice brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) and striped stem borer (SSB; Chilo suppressalis) are the two most serious pests in rice production.
( Lu et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University
Jiaxing Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Wuxi Hupper Bioseed Ltd.
Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Grain Industry, China
Newcastle University, UK
Fungal resistance: Reduced pathogenicity to the oomycete Phytophthora palmivora, a destructive pathogen that infects all parts of papaya plants. Increased papain sensitvity of in-vitro growth. Papaya fruits contain papain, a cysteine protease that mediates plant defense against pathogens and insects.
(Gumtow et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA
Viral resistance: Partial resistance to rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV). RBSDV is a serious threat in Chinese rice production.
(Wang et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Nanjing Agricultural University, China
Fungal resistance: Increased resistance to Phytophthora sojae, a pathogen severely impairing soybean production.
(Yu et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northeast Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Jilin Academy of Agricultural Science
Jiamusi Branch Academy of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Viral resistance: Reduced viral load and symptoms after bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV) infection.
(Baltes et al., 2015)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Minnesota
The Ohio State University, USA
Institute of Biophysics ASCR, Czech Republic
Resistance to parasitic weed: Phelipanche aegyptiaca. The obligate root parasitic plant causes great damages to important crops and represents one of the most destructive and greatest challenges for the agricultural economy.
(Bari et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Central University of Punjab, India
Newe Ya’ar Research Center
Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), Israel
Viral and fungal resistance: Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and powdery mildew (Oidium neolycopersici), diseases which reduce tomato crop yields and cause substantial economic losses each year.
(Pramanik et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Gyeongsang National University
Pusan National University
R&
D Center, Bunongseed Co., South Korea
Fungal resistance: Reduced susceptibility to the powdery mildew pathogen (Oidium neolycopersici), a world-wide disease threatening the production of greenhouse- and field-grown tomatoes.
(Santillán Martínez et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Wageningen University &
Research, The Netherlands
Fungal resistance: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum (FON), one of the most devastaging diseases affecting watermelons. FON progresses along xylem vessels, causing the hollow and dried-out stems.
(Zhang et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Horticultural Crop Genetic Improvement, China
Fungal resistance to Oidium neolycopersici, causing powdery mildew, one of the most important diseases limiting the production of wheat.
( Wang et al., 2014 )
SDN1
TALENs
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Fungal resistance to Oidium neolycopersici, causing powdery mildew, one of the most important diseases limiting the production of wheat.
( Zhang et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Fungal resistance: resistance to Fusarium graminearum. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an economically important disease, affecting both yield and grain quality of maize, wheat and barley.
(Brauer et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ottawa Research and Development Centre, Canada
Fungal resistance: enhanced resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator), a major fungal disease, threatening one of the most economically valuable horticular crops.
(Wan et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ministry of Agriculture, China
Northwest A&
F University
University of Maryland College Park, USA
Fungal resistance: decreased susceptibility to Ustilago maydis, causing smut. The pathogen causes galls on all aerial parts of the plant, impacting crop yield and quality.
(Pathi et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Germany
Bacterial resistance: enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas citri, causing citrus canker, one of the most serious diseases affecting the global citrus industry.
(Long et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Southwest University/Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Bacterial resistance: Xanthomonas citri, causing citrus canker, one of the most serious diseases affecting the global citrus industry. Citrus is the most produced fruit in the world.
(Peng et al., 2017)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and National Center for Citrus Variety Improvement
Southwest University, China
Fungal resistance: increased resistance to Phytophthora infestans, causing late blight disease, the most serious disease of potato crops worldwide. The pathogen can infect the leaves, stems and tubers of potato plants. An unprotected field can be completely destroyed in several days.
(Kieu et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden
University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Bacterial resistance: Xanthomonas citri, causing citrus canker, one of the most serious diseases affecting the global citrus industry.
(Jia et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Florida, USA
Viral resistance: Improved resistance to yellow leaf curl virus, a virus responsible for heavy yield losses for chili peper production.
(Kurniawati et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Institut Pertanian Bogor
Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumber Daya Genetik Pertanian, Indonesia
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Shan et al., 2013)
SDN1
TALENs
Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, China
University of Minnesota, USA

Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Zafar et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Constituent College of Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences
University of Information Technology
Engineering and Management Sciences
Constituent College of Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Pakistan
Fungal resistance: enhanced resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae, causing rice blast, one of the most destructive diseases affecting rice worldwide.
(Wang et al., 2016)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agriculture, China
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Zhou et al., 2015)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Iowa State University, USA
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Blanvillain-Baufumé et al., 2017)
SDN1
TALENs
IRD-CIRAD-Université, France
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Li et al., 2012)
SDN1
TALENs
Iowa State University, USA
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Wang et al., 2017)
SDN1
TALENs
National University of Singapore, Singapore
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Xie et al., 2017)
SDN1
TALENs
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Viral resistance: highly resistant to viral infection with beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV), a geminivirus that can cause serious damage to many crop plants.
(Ji et al., 2015)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Viral resistance: Attenuated infection symptoms and reduced viral RNA accumulation, specific for the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) or tobacco mosaic virus (TMV).
(Zhang et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
South China Agricultural University, China
University of Missouri, USA
Bacterial resistance: Enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, causing Bananas Xanthomonas wilt (BXW). Overall economic losses caused by Xanthomonas campestris were estimated at 2-8 billion USD over a decade.
(Tripathi et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Kenya
Fungal resistance: increased resistance to Phytophthora tropicalis. Severe outbreaks can destroy all cacao fruit on a farm. Each year, global cacao production is destroyed with 20-30% by pathogens.
(Fister et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Pennsylvania State University, USA
Fungal resistance: reduced susceptibility to Verticillium longisporum, a pathogen causing Verticillium stem striping. No fungicide treatments are currently available to control this disease.
(Pröbsting et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel
Institut für Zuckerrübenforschung
NPZ Innovation GmbH, Germany
Viral resistance: reduced cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) symptom severity and incidence. CBSD threatens cassava production in West Africa and is a major constraint on cassava production in East and Central Africa.
(Gomez et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of California
Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, USA
Fungal resistance: Resistance to pathogen Colletotrichum truncatum, causing anthracnose, a major disease accounting for significant pre- and post-harvest yield losses.
(Mishra et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Centurion University of Technology and Management
Siksha O Anusandhan University
Rama Devi Women'
s University, India
Fungal resistance: higher resistance to Verticillium dahliae infestation. Cotton verticillium wilt/cotton cancer, is a destructive disease, leading to 250-310 million USD economic losses each year in China.
(Zhang et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Virus resistance: Immunity to cucumber vein yellowing virus infection (Ipomovirus) and resistance to the potyviruses Zucchini yellow mosaic virus and Papaya ring spot mosaic virus.
(Chandrasekaran et al., 2016)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Volcani Center, Israel
Bacterial resistance: Xanthomonas citri, causing citrus canker, one of the most serious diseases affecting the global citrus industry. Citrus is the most produced fruit in the world.
(Jia et al., 2016)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Florida, USA
Bacterial resistance: resistance to Xanthomonas citri, a pathogen causing citrus canker. Citrus canker is one of the most devastating citrus diseases worldwide, causing canker symptoms. Generating disease-resistant varieties is one of the most efficient and environmentally friendly measures for controlling canker.
(Jia et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Florida
Citrus Research and Education Center, USA
Fungal resistance: increased resistance to Botrytis cinerea.
(Wang et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northwest A&
F University and Ministry of Agriculture, China
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Zhou et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Center for Plant Gene Research
Sichuan Agricultural University, China
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Li et al., 2013)
SDN1
TALENs
Iowa State University
Guangxi University, USA
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Cai et al., 2017)
SDN1
TALENs
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Bacterial and fungal resistance: Resistance to bacterial blight and rice blight. Also spontaneous cell death, altered seed dormancy (pre-harvest sprouting) and enhanced growth.
(Liao et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Sichuan Agricultural University, China
Viral resistance: resistance to rice tungro spherical virus, causing rice tungro disease (RTD). RTD is a serious threat for rice production in tropical Asia.
(Macovei et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease in Southeast Asia and West Africa. Bacteria enter the host and produce a toxin, which prevents the production of chlorophyl.
(Han et al., 2020)
SDN1
TALENs
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Hainan University, China
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease.
(Li et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
College of Life Science and Technology &
College of Horticulture &
Forestry Sciences
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Xu et al., 2021)
SDN1
TALENs
Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Crop Diseases Research Institute, Pakistan
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Zeng et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Viral resistance: resistance to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Delayed or reduced accumulation of viral DNA and abolished or attenuated symptoms of infection.
(Ali et al., 2015)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia
Viral resistance: resistance to potato virus Y (PVY), one of the most economically and scientifically important plant viruses, causing damaging diseases of cultivated tobacco around the world.
(Ruyi et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Mudanjiang Teachers College
Jilin Normal University
Mudanjiang Tobacco Research Institute, China
Viral resistance: to Cotton Leaf Curl Kokhran Virus, causing Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD), a very devastating and prevalent disease. CLCuD causes huge losses to the textile and other industries.
(Hamza et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Pakistan
Fungal resistance: resistance to Oidium neolycopersici, causing powdery mildew.
(Nekrasov et al., 2017)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Germany
Norwich Research Park, UK
Bacterial resistance: resistance to different pathogens including Xanthomonas spp., P. syringae and P. capsici.
(de Toledo Thomazella et al., 2016)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of California, USA
Viral resistance: resistance to pepper mottle virus (PepMoV), causing considerable damage to crop plants.
(Yoon et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Seoul National University
National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, South Korea
Drought and salt tolerance.
( Kumar et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Bhartidasan University, India
Resistance to parasitic weed: Phelipanche aegyptiaca. The obligate root parasitic plant causes great damages to important crops and represents one of the most destructive and greatest challenges for the agricultural economy.
(Bari et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Newe Ya’ar Research Center,
Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), Israel
University of California, USA
Fungal resistance: improved resistance to necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea.
(Jeon et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Stanford University, UK
L’Oreal, France
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, USA
Bacterial resistance: Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae DC3000, a widespread pathogen that causes bacterial speck disease of tomato.
(Ortigosa et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Centro Nacional de Biotecnología, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CNB-CSIC),Spain

Viral resistance: improved resistance to yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV).
(Tashkandi et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University
4700 King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia
Viral resistance: increased control on viral pathogen Banana streak virus (BSV). The BSV integrates in the banana host genome as endogenous BSV (eBSV). When banana plants are stressed, the eBSV produces infectious viral particles and thus the plant develops disease symptoms.
(Tripathi et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Kenya
University of California, USA
Disease resistant thermosensitive genic male sterility (TGMS) with enhanced resistance to rice blast and bacterial blight.
( Li et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Bacterial resistance: Enhanced resistance to both blast and bacterial blight diseases, two major diseases having devastating impact on the yield of rice in most rice-growing countries.
(Zhou et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
South China Agricultural University
Huazhong Agricultural University
Yuan Longping High-Tech Agriculture Co. Ltd
Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center
Yuan Longping High-Tech Agriculture Co. Ltd, China
Reduced aphid damage to improve crop resistance to aphids or other insects. Restrict aphid sucking on watermelon.
( Li et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, China
Bacterial resistance: Resistance/moderately resistance against Bacterial leaf blight (BLB), caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae (Xoo). BLB is a major constraint in rice production.
(Arulganesh et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Viral resistance: resistance to pepper veinal mottle virusin cherry fruit tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme)
(Kuroiwa et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
INRAE
Université Paris-Saclay
Université de Toulouse, France
Viral resistance: resistance to rice tungro disease (RTD), the most important viral disease that limits rice production.
(Kumam et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
ICAR-Indian Institute of Rice Research, India
Fungal resistance: increased resistance to both biotrophic and necrotrophic plant pathogenic fungi, Bipolaris spot blotch and Fusarium root rot.
(Galli et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Justus Liebig University, Germany
Fungal resistance: Enhanced resistance to blast without affecting the major agronomic traits. Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, is a devastating disease affecting rice production globally
(Nawaz et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guangxi University
South China Agricultural University, China
Viral resistance: Resistance to Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV), a major threat to the production of tomato.
(Ishikawa et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Institute of Agrobiological Sciences
Takii and Company Limited, Japan
Viral resistance: resistance to potyvirus potato virus Y (PVY), which causes serious yield loss.
(Kumar et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Agricultural Research Organization, Israel
Fungal resistance: contribute to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum resistance.
(Zhang et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Herbicide resistance: pds (phytoene desaturase), ALS (acetolactate synthase), and EPSPS (5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase)
(Yang et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chonnam National University, South Korea
Resistance against leaf chewing insects: leaf-chewing insects cause yield loss and reduce seed quality in soybeans
(Zhang et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Huazhong Agricultural University
Henan Agricultural University, China
Increased jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation after wounding and plant resistance to herbivorous insects.
( Sun et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Bacterial resistance: Enhanced resistance against hemibiotrophic pathogens M. oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (but increased susceptibility to Cochliobolus miyabeanus)
(Kim et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Seoul National University
Kyung Hee University, South Korea
Pennsylvania State University, USA
Resistance to Phytophthora sojae, which severely impairs soybean production.
( Yu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northeast Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Jilin Academy of Agricultural Science
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Jiamusi Branch Academy of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Eenhanced blast disease resistance
( Liao et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Sichuan Agricultural University, China
Highly significant reduction in susceptibility to fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora. Apple is one of the most cultivated fruit crops throughout the temperate regions of the world.
( Pompili et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Università degli Studi di Udine
Fondazione Edmund Mach, Italy
Differential resistance to tobamovirus.
( Kravchik et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas

Broad-spectrum resistance against multiple Potato virus Y (PVY)-strains.
( Noureen et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Constituent College of Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS)
University Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology (UIBB), Pakistan
Enhanced resistance to Botrytis cinerea.
( Huang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Beijing University of Agriculture
Capital Normal University, China
Visual detection of maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV), one of the important quarantine pathogens in China. This novel method is specific, rapid, sensitive and does not require special instruments and technical expertise.
( Duan et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University
Yazhou Bay Science and Technology City, China
Alexandria University, Egypt
Increased resistance to drought stress by enhancing antioxidant capacity and defence system.
( Gao et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Henan Agricultural University
China Tobacco Sichuan Industrial Co., China
Oomycete resistance: significantly reduced susceptibility to downy mildew disease (DM). DM is caused by Peronospora belbahrii, a worldwide threat to the basil industry.
(Zhang et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
The State University of New Jersey, USA
Mutants were compromised in infectivity of Phytophthora palmivora, a destructive oomycete plant pathogen with a wide host range
( Pettongkhao et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Prince of Songkla University, Thailand
University of Hawaii at Manoa
East-West Center, USA
Sainsbury Laboratory Cambridge University (SLCU), UK
High level of powdery mildew resistance while maintaining normal crop
growth and yields.
( Li et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Significantly enhanced resistance to V. dahliae, and furthermore also to Verticillium albo-atrum and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), despite severe growth defects.
( Hanika et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Wageningen University &
Research, The Netherlands
Significant resistance to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani and rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae.
( Hu et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University
Jiangxi Agricultural University
Wuhan Towin Biotechnology Company Limited, China
Enhanced resistance to downy mildew pathogen.
( Hasley et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA
Viral resistance: partial resistance to Pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV) isolate IC, with plants harboring weak symptoms and low virus loads at the systemic level.
(Moury et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
INRA, France
Université de Tunis El-Manar
Université de Carthage, Tunisia
Université Felix Houphouët-Boigny, Cote d’Ivoire
Institut de l’Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles, Burkina Faso
Robust rust resistance to pandemic stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis (Pst) without growth and yield penalty.
( Wang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northwest A&
F University
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Broad-spectrum bacterial blight resistance.
( Xu et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Enhanced resistance to powdery mildew.
( Wang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Tobacco Research, China

Traits related to herbicide tolerance

Herbicide tolerance: glyphosate
(Sauer et al., 2016)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cibus, USA
Chlorsulfuron
( Svitashev et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
DuPont Pioneer, USA
Glyphosate
( Li et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Herbicide tolerance (ALS-targeting)
( Wang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Nanjing Branch of Chinese National Center for Rice Improvement
Yangzhou University
Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Jiangsu University, China
CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Australia
Imazethapyr, imazapic
( Wang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Nanjing Branch of Chinese National Center for Rice Improvement
Yangzhou University
Jiangsu University, China
CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Australia
Glyphosate
( Li et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Herboxidiene
( Butt et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Saudi Arabia
Universite Paris-Saclay, France
FCD & bipyrazone
( Lu et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University
Qingdao Kingagroot Compounds Co. Ltd
Guizhou University
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Strong ALS-herbicide resistance
( Wang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, China
Improved paraquat resistance in rice without obvious yield penalty.
( Lyu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University, China