Genome-editing techniques are promising tools in plant breeding. To facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the use of genome editing, EU-SAGE developed an interactive, publicly accessible online database of genome-edited crop plants as described in peer-reviewed scientific publications.
The aim of the database is to inform interested stakeholder communities in a transparent manner about the latest evidence about the use of genome editing in crop plants. Different elements including the plant species, traits, techniques, and applications can be filtered in this database.
Regarding the methodology, a literature search in the bibliographic databases and web pages of governmental agencies was conducted using predefined queries in English. Identifying research articles in other languages was not possible due to language barriers. Patents were not screened.
Peer-reviewed articles were screened for relevance and were included in the database based on pre-defined criteria. The main criterium is that the research article should describe a research study of any crop plant in which a trait has been introduced that is relevant from an agricultural and/or food/feed perspective. The database does neither give information on the stage of development of the crop plant, nor on the existence of the intention to develop the described crop plants to be marketed.
This database will be regularly updated. Please contact us via the following webpage in case you would like to inform us about a new scientific study of crops developed for market-oriented agricultural production as a result of genome editing

Plant

Displaying 912 results

Traits related to biotic stress tolerance

Highly significant reduction in susceptibility to fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora. Apple is one of the most cultivated fruit crops throughout the temperate regions of the world.
( Pompili et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Università degli Studi di Udine
Fondazione Edmund Mach, Italy
Viral resistance: Enhanced resistance to sweet potato virus disease (SPVD). SPVD is caused by the co-infection of sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV) and sweet potato feathery mottle virus.
(Yu et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Jiangsu Normal University
Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Xuzhou Institute of Agricultural Sciences in Jiangsu Xuhuai District, China
Fungal resistance: enhanced resistance to Phytophthora infestans. Phytophthora infestans causes late blight disease, which is severely damaging to the global tomato industry
(Hong et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Dalian University of Technology
Beijing Academy of Agriculture &
Forestry Sciences
Shenyang Agricultural University/Key Laboratory of Protected Horticulture, China
Fungal resistance: Enhanced resistance to the pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.
(Sun et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Yangzhou University, China
Viral resistance: increased resistance to infection with the potato virus Y (PVY) and tolerance to salt and osmotic stress. PVY is one of the most economically important potato pathogens
(Makhotenko et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Russia Moscow State University, Russia
Doka Gene Technologies Ltd, USA
Viral resistance: improved resistance against tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). TYLCV causes significant economic losses in tomato production worldwide.
(Faal et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
Bacterial resistance: Increased resistance to Erwinia amylovora, causing fire blight disease that threatens the apple and a wide range of ornamental and commercial Rosaceae host plants.
(Malnoy et al., 2016)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Fondazione Edmund Mach, Italy
ToolGen Inc.
Institute for Basic Science
Seoul National University, South Korea
Fungal resistance: increased resistance to Erysiphe necator, causing powdery mildew in grape cultivar. The pathogen infects all green tissues and berries, leading to dramatic losses in yield and berry quality.
(Malnoy et al., 2016)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Fondazione Edmund Mach, Italy
ToolGen Inc.
Institute for Basic Science
Seoul National University, South Korea
Disease resistant thermosensitive genic male sterility (TGMS) with enhanced resistance to rice blast and bacterial blight.
( Li et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Bacterial resistance: Enhanced resistance to both blast and bacterial blight diseases, two major diseases having devastating impact on the yield of rice in most rice-growing countries.
(Zhou et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
South China Agricultural University
Huazhong Agricultural University
Yuan Longping High-Tech Agriculture Co. Ltd
Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center
Yuan Longping High-Tech Agriculture Co. Ltd, China
Bacterial resistance: Resistance/moderately resistance against Bacterial leaf blight (BLB), caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae (Xoo). BLB is a major constraint in rice production.
(Arulganesh et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Viral resistance: resistance to pepper veinal mottle virusin cherry fruit tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme)
(Kuroiwa et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
INRAE
Université Paris-Saclay
Université de Toulouse, France
Enhanced resistance to insects, no serotonin production and higher salicylic acid levels. Rice brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) and striped stem borer (SSB; Chilo suppressalis) are the two most serious pests in rice production.
( Lu et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University
Jiaxing Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Wuxi Hupper Bioseed Ltd.
Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Grain Industry, China
Newcastle University, UK
Reduced aphid damage to improve crop resistance to aphids or other insects. Restrict aphid sucking on watermelon.
( Li et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Beijing Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, China
Fungal resistance: Reduced pathogenicity to the oomycete Phytophthora palmivora, a destructive pathogen that infects all parts of papaya plants. Increased papain sensitvity of in-vitro growth. Papaya fruits contain papain, a cysteine protease that mediates plant defense against pathogens and insects.
(Gumtow et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA
Viral resistance: Partial resistance to rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV). RBSDV is a serious threat in Chinese rice production.
(Wang et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Nanjing Agricultural University, China
Fungal resistance: Increased resistance to Phytophthora sojae, a pathogen severely impairing soybean production.
(Yu et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northeast Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Jilin Academy of Agricultural Science
Jiamusi Branch Academy of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Viral resistance: Reduced viral load and symptoms after bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV) infection.
(Baltes et al., 2015)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Minnesota
The Ohio State University, USA
Institute of Biophysics ASCR, Czech Republic
Fungal resistance: contribute to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum resistance.
(Zhang et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Increased jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation after wounding and plant resistance to herbivorous insects.
( Sun et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Bacterial resistance: Enhanced resistance against hemibiotrophic pathogens M. oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (but increased susceptibility to Cochliobolus miyabeanus)
(Kim et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Seoul National University
Kyung Hee University, South Korea
Pennsylvania State University, USA
Broad-spectrum resistance against multiple Potato virus Y (PVY)-strains.
( Noureen et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Constituent College of Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS)
University Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology (UIBB), Pakistan
Visual detection of maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV), one of the important quarantine pathogens in China. This novel method is specific, rapid, sensitive and does not require special instruments and technical expertise.
( Duan et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University
Yazhou Bay Science and Technology City, China
Alexandria University, Egypt
Increased resistance to drought stress by enhancing antioxidant capacity and defence system.
( Gao et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Henan Agricultural University
China Tobacco Sichuan Industrial Co., China
Fungal resistance: increased resistance to both biotrophic and necrotrophic plant pathogenic fungi, Bipolaris spot blotch and Fusarium root rot.
(Galli et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Justus Liebig University, Germany
Oomycete resistance: significantly reduced susceptibility to downy mildew disease (DM). DM is caused by Peronospora belbahrii, a worldwide threat to the basil industry.
(Zhang et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
The State University of New Jersey, USA
Mutants were compromised in infectivity of Phytophthora palmivora, a destructive oomycete plant pathogen with a wide host range
( Pettongkhao et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Prince of Songkla University, Thailand
University of Hawaii at Manoa
East-West Center, USA
Sainsbury Laboratory Cambridge University (SLCU), UK
High level of powdery mildew resistance while maintaining normal crop
growth and yields.
( Li et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Significantly enhanced resistance to V. dahliae, and furthermore also to Verticillium albo-atrum and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), despite severe growth defects.
( Hanika et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Wageningen University &
Research, The Netherlands
Significant resistance to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), sheath blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani and rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae.
( Hu et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University
Jiangxi Agricultural University
Wuhan Towin Biotechnology Company Limited, China
Enhanced resistance to downy mildew pathogen.
( Hasley et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA
Robust rust resistance to pandemic stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis (Pst) without growth and yield penalty.
( Wang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northwest A&
F University
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Disease-resistant and fertile varieties.
( Li et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Huazhong Agricultural University

Hubei Hongshan Laborator, China
Oilseed rape mutant with non-abscising floral organs. Clerotinia stem rot (SSR), caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a detrimental fungal disease for oilseed rape. Petal infection is crucial to the prevalence of SSR in oilseed rape. Oilseed rape varieties with abscission-defective floral organs were predicted to be less susceptible to Sclerotinia infection and to have a longer flowering period to enhance tourism income.
( Wu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Yangzhou University, China
Viral resistance: enhanced Potato virus Y (PVY) resistance. PVY infection can result in up to 70% yield loss globally.
(Le et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Vietnam
University of Edinburgh, UK
Viral resistance: partial resistance to Pepper veinal mottle virus (PVMV) isolate IC, with plants harboring weak symptoms and low virus loads at the systemic level.
(Moury et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
INRA, France
Université de Tunis El-Manar
Université de Carthage, Tunisia
Université Felix Houphouët-Boigny, Cote d’Ivoire
Institut de l’Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles, Burkina Faso
Broad-spectrum bacterial blight resistance.
( Xu et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Enhanced resistance to powdery mildew.
( Wang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Tobacco Research, China
High resistance to powdery mildew under semi-commercial growth conditions.
( Shnaider et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Agricultural Research Organization Volcani Center, Israel
Confered resistance to ear rot caused by Fusarium verticillioides.
( Liu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement
Hainan Yazhou Bay Seed Lab, China
Viral resistance: reduced viral accumulation and amelioration of virus-induced symptoms by Potato Virus Y.
(Lucioli et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
ENEA
Council for Agricultural Research and Economics (CREA), Italy
National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre, Hungary
Viral resistance: resistance to rice tungro disease (RTD), the most important viral disease that limits rice production.
(Kumam et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
ICAR-Indian Institute of Rice Research, India
Viral resistance: Resistance to Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV), a major threat to the production of tomato.
(Ishikawa et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Institute of Agrobiological Sciences
Takii and Company Limited, Japan
Viral resistance: resistance to potyvirus potato virus Y (PVY), which causes serious yield loss.
(Kumar et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Agricultural Research Organization, Israel
Viral resistance: Resistance against Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3), which is one of the causal agents of grapevine leafroll disease (GLD). GLD severely impacts grapevine production.
(Jiao et al., 2022)

CRISPR/Cas
Northwest A&
F University, China
Herbicide resistance: pds (phytoene desaturase), ALS (acetolactate synthase), and EPSPS (5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase)
(Yang et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chonnam National University, South Korea
Resistance against leaf chewing insects: leaf-chewing insects cause yield loss and reduce seed quality in soybeans
(Zhang et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Huazhong Agricultural University
Henan Agricultural University, China
Resistance to Phytophthora sojae, which severely impairs soybean production.
( Yu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northeast Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Jilin Academy of Agricultural Science
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Jiamusi Branch Academy of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Fungal resistance: increased resistance to southern leaf blight (SLB), caused by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus (anamorph Bipolaris maydis). SLB is a major foliar disease which causes significant yield losses in maize worldwide.
(Chen et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northwest A&
F University, China
Corteva AgriscienceTM
USDA-ARS
North Carolina State University, USA
Viral resistance: increased resistance against wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV) without yield penalty. WYMV results in severe yield losses in hexaploid wheat.
(Kan et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS)
Agricultural Sciences Institute in Jiangsu Lixiahe Area, China
Bacterial resistance: enhanced disease resistance to Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis infection.
(García-Murillo et al., 2023)

CRISPR/Cas
Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico
Bacterial resistance: improved resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, which causes bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Oliva et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
International Rice Research Institute, Philippines
University of Missouri
University of Florida
Iowa State University
Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, USA
Université Montpellier, France
Heinrich Heine Universität Düsseldorf
Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research
Erfurt University of Applied Sciences, Germany
Nagoya University, Japan
Fungal resistance: increased resistance against the fungus Pyricularia oryzae, causing rice blast, one of the most destructive diseases affecting rice worldwide.
(Távora et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Federal University of Juiz de Fora
Embrapa Genetic Resources and Biotechnology
Catholic University of Brasilia
Catholic University of Dom Bosco, Brazil
Agricultural Research Center for International Development (CIRAD)
University of Montpellier
Montpellier SupAgro, France
Fungal resistance: increased resistance against the fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst). Wheat stripe rust is caused by Pst and is one of the most destructive wheat diseases, resulting in significant losses to wheat production worldwide.
(He et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northwest A&
F University
Hebei Agri cultural University, China
Viral resistance: enhanced resistance against chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV). The range of symptoms caused by CpCDV varies from mosaic pattern to streaks to leaf curling and can include browning of the collar region and stunting, foliar chlorosis and necrosis.
(Munir Malik et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of the Punjab
University of Gujrat, Pakistan
Washington State University, USA
Fungal resistance: Increased tolerance against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, causing vascular wilt.
(Ijaz et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Agriculture, Pakistan
Bacterial resistance: enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Kim et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Sejong University, South Korea
Viral resistance: Increased resistance to the barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV), which can cause yield losses as high as 50% upon infection.
(Hoffie et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Leibniz-Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK)
Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Germany
Bacterial resistance: Enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc), which cause bacterial blight and bacterial leaf streak, respectively.
(Peng et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanjing Agricultural University
Shandong Agricultural University
Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, China
Resistance to parasitic weed: Phelipanche aegyptiaca. The obligate root parasitic plant causes great damages to important crops and represents one of the most destructive and greatest challenges for the agricultural economy.
(Bari et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Central University of Punjab, India
Newe Ya’ar Research Center
Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), Israel
Viral and fungal resistance: Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and powdery mildew (Oidium neolycopersici), diseases which reduce tomato crop yields and cause substantial economic losses each year.
(Pramanik et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Gyeongsang National University
Pusan National University
R&
D Center, Bunongseed Co., South Korea
Fungal resistance: Reduced susceptibility to the powdery mildew pathogen (Oidium neolycopersici), a world-wide disease threatening the production of greenhouse- and field-grown tomatoes.
(Santillán Martínez et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Wageningen University &
Research, The Netherlands
Fungal resistance: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum (FON), one of the most devastaging diseases affecting watermelons. FON progresses along xylem vessels, causing the hollow and dried-out stems.
(Zhang et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Horticultural Crop Genetic Improvement, China
Fungal resistance to Oidium neolycopersici, causing powdery mildew, one of the most important diseases limiting the production of wheat.
( Wang et al., 2014 )
SDN1
TALENs
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Fungal resistance to Oidium neolycopersici, causing powdery mildew, one of the most important diseases limiting the production of wheat.
( Zhang et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Fungal resistance: resistance to Fusarium graminearum. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an economically important disease, affecting both yield and grain quality of maize, wheat and barley.
(Brauer et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ottawa Research and Development Centre, Canada
Fungal resistance: enhanced resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator), a major fungal disease, threatening one of the most economically valuable horticular crops.
(Wan et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ministry of Agriculture, China
Northwest A&
F University
University of Maryland College Park, USA
Fungal resistance: decreased susceptibility to Ustilago maydis, causing smut. The pathogen causes galls on all aerial parts of the plant, impacting crop yield and quality.
(Pathi et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Germany
Bacterial resistance: enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas citri, causing citrus canker, one of the most serious diseases affecting the global citrus industry.
(Long et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Southwest University/Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Bacterial resistance: Xanthomonas citri, causing citrus canker, one of the most serious diseases affecting the global citrus industry. Citrus is the most produced fruit in the world.
(Peng et al., 2017)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and National Center for Citrus Variety Improvement
Southwest University, China
Viral resistance: Resistance to Potato Virus Y (PVY), one of the most devastating viral pathogens causing substantial harvest losses.
(Zhan et al., 2019)

CRISPR/Cas
Hubei University
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Max‐Planck‐Institut für Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie, Germany
Fungal resistance: increased resistance to Phytophthora infestans, causing late blight disease, the most serious disease of potato crops worldwide. The pathogen can infect the leaves, stems and tubers of potato plants. An unprotected field can be completely destroyed in several days.
(Kieu et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden
University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Bacterial resistance: Xanthomonas citri, causing citrus canker, one of the most serious diseases affecting the global citrus industry.
(Jia et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Florida, USA
Viral resistance: Improved resistance to yellow leaf curl virus, a virus responsible for heavy yield losses for chili peper production.
(Kurniawati et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Institut Pertanian Bogor
Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Sumber Daya Genetik Pertanian, Indonesia
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Shan et al., 2013)
SDN1
TALENs
Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, China
University of Minnesota, USA

Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Zafar et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Constituent College of Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences
University of Information Technology
Engineering and Management Sciences
Constituent College of Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Pakistan
Fungal resistance: enhanced resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae, causing rice blast, one of the most destructive diseases affecting rice worldwide.
(Wang et al., 2016)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agriculture, China
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Zhou et al., 2015)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Iowa State University, USA
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Blanvillain-Baufumé et al., 2017)
SDN1
TALENs
IRD-CIRAD-Université, France
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Li et al., 2012)
SDN1
TALENs
Iowa State University, USA
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Wang et al., 2017)
SDN1
TALENs
National University of Singapore, Singapore
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Xie et al., 2017)
SDN1
TALENs
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Viral resistance: highly resistant to viral infection with beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV), a geminivirus that can cause serious damage to many crop plants.
(Ji et al., 2015)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Viral resistance: Attenuated infection symptoms and reduced viral RNA accumulation, specific for the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) or tobacco mosaic virus (TMV).
(Zhang et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
South China Agricultural University, China
University of Missouri, USA
Bacterial resistance: Enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum, causing Bananas Xanthomonas wilt (BXW). Overall economic losses caused by Xanthomonas campestris were estimated at 2-8 billion USD over a decade.
(Tripathi et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Kenya
Fungal resistance: increased resistance to Phytophthora tropicalis. Severe outbreaks can destroy all cacao fruit on a farm. Each year, global cacao production is destroyed with 20-30% by pathogens.
(Fister et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Pennsylvania State University, USA
Fungal resistance: reduced susceptibility to Verticillium longisporum, a pathogen causing Verticillium stem striping. No fungicide treatments are currently available to control this disease.
(Pröbsting et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel
Institut für Zuckerrübenforschung
NPZ Innovation GmbH, Germany
Visualization of the early stages of Cassava bacterial blight (CBB) infection in vivo. CBB is caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Manihotis.
( Veley et al., 2021 )
SDN2
CRISPR/Cas
Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, USA
National Root Crops Research Institute, Nigeria
Viral resistance: reduced cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) symptom severity and incidence. CBSD threatens cassava production in West Africa and is a major constraint on cassava production in East and Central Africa.
(Gomez et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of California
Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, USA
Fungal resistance: Resistance to pathogen Colletotrichum truncatum, causing anthracnose, a major disease accounting for significant pre- and post-harvest yield losses.
(Mishra et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Centurion University of Technology and Management
Siksha O Anusandhan University
Rama Devi Women'
s University, India
Fungal resistance: higher resistance to Verticillium dahliae infestation. Cotton verticillium wilt/cotton cancer, is a destructive disease, leading to 250-310 million USD economic losses each year in China.
(Zhang et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Virus resistance: Immunity to cucumber vein yellowing virus infection (Ipomovirus) and resistance to the potyviruses Zucchini yellow mosaic virus and Papaya ring spot mosaic virus.
(Chandrasekaran et al., 2016)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Volcani Center, Israel
Bacterial resistance: Xanthomonas citri, causing citrus canker, one of the most serious diseases affecting the global citrus industry. Citrus is the most produced fruit in the world.
(Jia et al., 2016)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Florida, USA
Bacterial resistance: resistance to Xanthomonas citri, a pathogen causing citrus canker. Citrus canker is one of the most devastating citrus diseases worldwide, causing canker symptoms. Generating disease-resistant varieties is one of the most efficient and environmentally friendly measures for controlling canker.
(Jia et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Florida
Citrus Research and Education Center, USA
Fungal resistance: increased resistance to Botrytis cinerea.
(Wang et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northwest A&
F University and Ministry of Agriculture, China
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Zhou et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Center for Plant Gene Research
Sichuan Agricultural University, China
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Li et al., 2013)
SDN1
TALENs
Iowa State University, USA
Guangxi University, China
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Cai et al., 2017)
SDN1
TALENs
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Bacterial and fungal resistance: Resistance to bacterial blight and rice blight. Also spontaneous cell death, altered seed dormancy (pre-harvest sprouting) and enhanced growth.
(Liao et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Sichuan Agricultural University, China
Viral resistance: resistance to rice tungro spherical virus, causing rice tungro disease (RTD). RTD is a serious threat for rice production in tropical Asia.
(Macovei et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease in Southeast Asia and West Africa. Bacteria enter the host and produce a toxin, which prevents the production of chlorophyl.
(Han et al., 2020)
SDN1
TALENs
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Hainan University, China
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease in Southeast Asia and West Africa.
(Wei et al., 2021)
SDN2
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Agricultural Research Center, Egypt
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease.
(Li et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
College of Life Science and Technology &
College of Horticulture &
Forestry Sciences
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Xu et al., 2021)
SDN1
TALENs
Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Crop Diseases Research Institute, Pakistan
Bacterial resistance: Strong resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae, causing bacterial blight, a devastating rice disease resulting in yield losses.
(Zeng et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Viral resistance: resistance to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Delayed or reduced accumulation of viral DNA and abolished or attenuated symptoms of infection.
(Ali et al., 2015)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia
Viral resistance: resistance to potato virus Y (PVY), one of the most economically and scientifically important plant viruses, causing damaging diseases of cultivated tobacco around the world.
(Ruyi et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Mudanjiang Teachers College
Jilin Normal University
Mudanjiang Tobacco Research Institute, China
Viral resistance: to Cotton Leaf Curl Kokhran Virus, causing Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD), a very devastating and prevalent disease. CLCuD causes huge losses to the textile and other industries.
(Hamza et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Pakistan
Fungal resistance: resistance to Oidium neolycopersici, causing powdery mildew.
(Nekrasov et al., 2017)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Germany
Norwich Research Park, UK
Bacterial resistance: resistance to different pathogens including Xanthomonas spp., P. syringae and P. capsici.
(de Toledo Thomazella et al., 2016)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of California, USA
Viral resistance: resistance to pepper mottle virus (PepMoV), causing considerable damage to crop plants.
(Yoon et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Seoul National University
National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, South Korea
Enhanced blast disease resistance
( Liao et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Sichuan Agricultural University, China
Resistance to parasitic weed: Phelipanche aegyptiaca. The obligate root parasitic plant causes great damages to important crops and represents one of the most destructive and greatest challenges for the agricultural economy.
(Bari et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Newe Ya’ar Research Center,
Agricultural Research Organization (ARO), Israel
University of California, USA
Fungal resistance: improved resistance to necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea.
(Jeon et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Stanford University, UK
L’Oreal, France
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, USA
Bacterial resistance: Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae DC3000, a widespread pathogen that causes bacterial speck disease of tomato.
(Ortigosa et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Centro Nacional de Biotecnología, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CNB-CSIC),Spain

Viral resistance: improved resistance to yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV).
(Tashkandi et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University
4700 King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia
Differential resistance to tobamovirus.
( Kravchik et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas

Enhanced resistance to Botrytis cinerea.
( Huang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Beijing University of Agriculture
Capital Normal University, China
Viral resistance: increased control on viral pathogen Banana streak virus (BSV). The BSV integrates in the banana host genome as endogenous BSV (eBSV). When banana plants are stressed, the eBSV produces infectious viral particles and thus the plant develops disease symptoms.
(Tripathi et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Kenya
University of California, USA
Fungal resistance: Enhanced resistance to blast without affecting the major agronomic traits. Rice blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, is a devastating disease affecting rice production globally
(Nawaz et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guangxi University
South China Agricultural University, China
Fungal resistance: Improved resistance to false smut, caused by Ustilaginoidea virens. False smut is one of the major fungal diseases of rice.
(Liang et al., 2018)
SDN2
CRISPR/Cas
Northwest A&
F University
Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, China
Viral resistance: Highly efficient resistance against wheat dwarf virus (WDV), an economically important virus. WDV infect both wheat and barley causing severe yield losses. The natural resistance resources are limited.
(Kis et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Pannonia
Hungarian Academy of Sciences
Eötvös Loránd University University
Szent István University, Hungary
Increased basal immunity and broad spectrum disease resistance.
( Leibman-Markus et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Volcani Institute
Tel Aviv University, Israel
Fungal resistance: strong resistance against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), which causes Fusarium Wilt Disease in tomato.
(Debbarma et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
CSIR-North East Institute of Science and Technology
Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research
Assam Agricultural University
Central Muga Eri Research and Training Institute
International Crop Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics, India
Oomycete resistance: increased resistance against soybean root rot disease caused by Phytophthora sojae.
(Liu et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanjing Agricultural University, China
Viral resistance: Increased resistance against watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), and zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV).
(Fidan et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Akdeniz University
Research and Development Department AD ROSSEN Seeds, Turkey
Viral resistance: increased resistance against Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV).
(Jogam et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Kakatiya University
Center of Innovative and Applied Bioprocessing (DBT-CIAB), India
University of Minnesota
East Carolina University, USA
Viral resistance: increased resistance to chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV).
(Malik et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of the Punjab
University of Gujrat, Pakistan
Washington State University, USA
Viral resistance: increased resistance to turnip mosaic virus (TuMV).
(Lee et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Rural Development Administration
Advanced Institute for Science and Technology, South Korea
North Carolina State University, USA
Fungal resistance: increased resistance to Botrytis cinerea.
(Perk et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
CONICET—Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata
Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina
Fungal and bacterial resistance: increased resistance towards the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm) and fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicicola.
(Yung Cha et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Gyeongsang National University, South Korea
Fungal resistance: enhanced resistance to Golovinomyces cichoracearum, which causes powdery mildew.
(Wang et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Linyi Tobacco Company
Tobacco Research Institute of Hubei Province
China Tobacco Hunan Industrial Co., China
Bacterial and fungal resistance: increased resistance against the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae causing bacterial blight and rice blast, respectively.
(Liu et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hunan Agricultural University
Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Rice and Rapeseed Breeding for Disease Resistance
Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences
State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice, China
Nematode resistance: decreased susceptibility against root-knot nematodes, showing fewer gall and egg masses.
(Noureddine et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Université Côte d’Azur
Université de Toulouse, France
Kumamoto University, Japan
Visual detection of Alternaria solani, the causal agent of early blight in potato, which poses a persistant threat to potato production worldwide. The platform is specific, sensitive and suitable for high-throughput detection.
( Guo et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Jilin University
Jilin Agricultural University
Shenzhen Campus of Sun Yat-sen University, China
Rapid detection of Sclerotium rolfsii, the causal agent of stem and root rot disease. This technique is effective for identification of pathogens, with potential for on-site testing.
( Changtor et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Naresuan University, Thailand
Resistance to parasitic weed: Striga spp. The parasitic plant reduces yields of cereal crops worldwide.
(Hao et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Pennsylvania State University, USA
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Senegal
Kenyatta University, Kenya

Oomycete resistance: resistance against downly mildew disease (DM). DM is caused by Peronospora belbahrii, a worldwide threat to the basil industry.
(Laura et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Research Centre for Vegetable and Ornamental Crops
Institute of Agricultural Biology and Biotechnology
Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection
Research Centre for Olive Fruit and Citrus Crops
University of Pisa
Center for Agricultural Experimentation and Assistance
Institute of Biosciences and Bioresources, Italy
Fungal and bacterial resistance: improved resistance against Magnaporthe oryzae–caused rice blast and bacterial leaf streak caused by Xanthomonas oryzae. Rice blast and bacterial leaf streak are deadly diseases that can lead to serious damage.
(Yang et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guangxi University
South China Agricultural University
Guangxi Lvhai
Seed Co., China
Fungal resistance: effective reduction of susceptibility against downy mildew by increasing salicylic acid levels. The pathogen can devastate individual vineyards and in some cases also affect production from entire regions.
(Giacomelli et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Research and Innovation Centre
Fondazione Edmund Mach, Italy
Enza Zaden
Hudson River Biotechnology, The Netherlands
Visual detection of Fusarium temperatum, the causal agent of maize stalk rot disease which reduces grain yield and threatens food safety and quality.
This simple detection platform allows high-throughput testing with potential for applications in field detection.
( Li et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Jilin University
Jilin Agricultural University
Shenzhen Campus of Sun Yat-sen University, China
Detection of Fumonisin B1 (FB1), a common mycotoxin found in agricultural products. FB1 is highly toxic, which can cause oxidative stress response and has been listed as a class 2B carcinogen. The method wx is highly specific and sensitive for FB1, has a rather simple, convenient and fast workflow.
( Qiao et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Kunming University of Science and Technology, China
Viral resistance: Resistance against potato leaf roll virus, potato virus Y, potato virus X and potato virus S, which have been recognized as the major potato viruses.
(Zhan et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hubei University
Huazhong Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Fungal resistance: enhanced resistance against powdery mildew disease.
(Xu et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Kyungpook National University
Rural Development Administration
Sunchon National University, South Korea
Lingnan Normal University, China
Broad-spectrum disease resistance without yield loss.
( Sha et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University
Chengdu Normal University
Jiangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Anhui Agricultural University
BGI-Shenzhen
Northwest A&
F University
Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Université de Bordeaux, France
University of California
The Joint BioEnergy Institute, USA
University of Adelaide, Australia
Viral resistance: reduced cotton leaf curl viral (CLCuV) load with asymptomatic plants. <br /> CLCuV causes a very devastating and prevalent disease. It causes huge losses to textile and other industries.
(Shakoor et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of the Punjab
University of Gujrat, Pakistan
Pacific Biosciences
CureVac Manufacturing GmbH, Germany
Visual detection of brassica yellows virus (BrYV), an economically important virus on cruciferous species. This assay allows for convenient, portable, rapid, low-cost, highly sensitive and specific detection and has great potential for on-site monitoring of BrYV.
( Xu et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guizhou University, China
Fungal resistance: broad-spectrum resistance to rice pathogens without adverse effects in terms of growth and yield.
(Chen et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Anhui Agricultural University
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Fungal resistance: Reduced susceptibility to necrotrophic fungi. Necrotrophic fungi, such as Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria solani, cause severe damage in tomato production.
(Ramirez Gaona et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Wageningen University &
Research, The Netherlands
Takii &
Company Limited, Japan
Fungal resistance: Improved resistance against Phytophtora without affecting potato growth and development.
(Bi et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University
South China Agricultural University
Shanghai Normal University
Nanjing Agricultural University, China
Bacterial resistance: Plant moderately resistant against a strain of the gram-negative bacterium, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). Xoo severely impacts rice productivity by causing bacterial leaf blight disease.
(Bhagya Sree et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Fungal resistance: broad-spectrum stress tolerance including Pseudoperonospora cubernsis (P. cubensis) resistance. P. cubensis is the causal agent of cucurbit downy mildew, responsible for devastating losses worldwide of cucumber, cantaloupe, pumpkin, watermelon and squash.
(Dong et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
University of California, USA
Viral resistance: Strong barley yellow dwarf virusses (BYDV) resistance without negative effects on plant growth under field conditions. BYDV threatens efficient and stable production of wheat, maize, barley and oats.
(Wang et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Henan Agricultural University
The Shennong Laboratory
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Rapid detection of toxigenic Fusarium verticillioides, a phytopathogenic fungus that causes Fusarium ear and stalk rot and poses a threat to maize yields. This accurate and portable detection equipment has great potential for detection of the pathogen, even in areas lacking proper lab equipment.
( Liang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Institute of Food Science and Technology
North Minzu University
School of Food Science and Engineering, China
Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Belgium
Sensitive detection of two fungal pathogens (Diaporthe aspalathi and Diaporthe caulivora) that cause soybean stem canker. The method requires minimal equipment as well as training and shows potential for on-site screening.
( Sun et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine
Shenyang Agricultural University
Huangpu Customs Technology Center
Technical Center of Hangzhou Customs
Dalian University, China
Fast and accurate field screening and differentiation of four major Tobamoviruses infecting tomato and pepper. Tomatoviruses are the most important viruses infecting plants and cause huge economic losses to tomato and pepper crops globally.
( Zhao et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine
China Agricultural University, China
Fungal resistance: Enhanced resistance to powdery mildew, a fungal disease causing great losses in soybean yield and seed quality.
(Bui et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Institute of Biotechnology
University of Science and Technology of Hanoi
Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology
Vietnam Academy of Agriculture Science, Vietnam
Washington University in St. Louis
University of Missouri, USA

Fast and accurate field screening and differentiation of four major Tobamoviruses infecting tomato and pepper. Tomatoviruses are the most important viruses infecting plants and cause huge economic losses to tomato and pepper crops globally.
( Zhao et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine
China Agricultural University, China
Nematode resistance: resistance against soybean cyst nematode. Plant-parasitic nematode pests result in billions of dollars in realized annual losses worldwide.
(Usovsky et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Missouri
University of Georgia
Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, USA
Fungal resistance: stripe rust resistance, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. In appropriate environmental conditions and susceptible varieties, stripe rust can cause huge grain yield and quality loss.
(Li et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Fudan University
Chinese Academy of Sciences
University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences
China Agricultural University
Guangzhou University
School of Life Science
Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Ministry of Agriculture
National Engineering Research Center for Wheat and Maize
Sichuan Agricultural University
Nanjing Agricultural University, China
Université Paris Cité
Université Paris-Saclay, France
Resistance against a protist pathogen: stable resistance against clubroot disease. Clubroot disease is caused by the protist Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin and can result in a 10-15% yield loss in Brassica species as well as related crops.
(Hu et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Saskatoon Research and Development Centre, Canada
Bacterial resistance: resistance against banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) disease, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum. BXW forms a great threat to banana cultivation in East and Central Africa.
(Ntui et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Kenya
Plant parasitic resitance: Broomrape resistant plants. Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr) threatens the sunflower production in countries in Central and Eastern Europe as well as in Spain, Turkey, Israel, Iran, Kazakhstan, and China.
(Yildirim et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Department of Molecular Bioloqy and Genetics Ondokuz Mayıs University
Sunflower Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops
Department of Biomedical Engineering Akdeniz University, Turkey
Fungal resistance: Decreased susceptibility to Plasmopara viticola, the causing agent of the grapevine downy mildew.
(Djennane et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Université de Strasbourg
Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin (IJPB), France
Viral resistance: highly efficient resistance to a broad spectrum of geminiviruses. Geminiviruses severely damage economically important crops worldwide.
(Li et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Guangxi University
Zhejiang University, China
Fungal resistance: increased resistance against powdery mildew, a destructive disease that threatens cucumber production globally.
(Dong et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
University of California Davis, USA
Wageningen University &
Research, The Netherlands
Fungal resistance: Improved resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae.
(Lijuan et al., 2024)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China National Rice Research Institute
Agricultural College of Yangzhou University, China
Effective detection of a resistance-breaking strain of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). TSWV causes a great threat to various food crops globally and can cause devastating epidemics.
( Shymanovich et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
North Carolina State University, USA
Enhanced resistance against rice bacterial blight (BB) and bacterial leaf streak (BLS).
( Wang et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang Normal University, China
Sensitive and specific visual detection method for Acidovorax citrulli, an important seed-borne disease of the cucurbits.
( Wang et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Fuyang Normal University
Anhui Jianzhu University
Southern Subtropicals Grops Research Institute, China
Viral resistance: Increased resistance to a potyvirus sugarcane mosaic virus, which causes dwarf mosaic disease in maize, sugarcane and sorghum.
(Xie et al., 2024)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University
Longping Agriculture Science Co. Ltd.
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Yunnan Agricultural University, China
Fungal resistance: enhanced resistance against rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici., while also increasing yield.
(Liu et al., 2024)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Southwest University
Yangtze University, China
University of Cologne, Germany
University of Maryland
Detection assay for brassica yellows virus (BrYV) detection. BrYV is an economically important virus threatening cruciferous species.
( Xu et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guizhou University
Guizhou Academy of Tobacco Sciences
Guizhou Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Bacterial resistance: Enhanced resistance to blast and bacterial blight.
(Zhang et al., 2024)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China National Rice Research Institute, China
Fungal resistance: Reduced susceptibility to Verticillium longisporum, fungal pathogen that causes stem striping in Brassica napus and leads to huge yield losses.
(Ye et al., 2024)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel
Institut für Zuckerrübenforschung
Hohenlieth-Hof, NPZ Innovation GmbH, Germany
Aswan University, Egypt
Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, China
Nematode resistance: Enhanced resistance to more virulent soybean cyst nematode (SCN). SCN is the most devastating post to soybean crop yields in the US.
(Wang et al., 2024)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Henan Agricultural University
University of South Carolina, China
Fungal and bacterial resistance: Increased resistance to late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans, common scab, and the early blight pathogen Alternaria solani.
(Karlsson et al., 2024)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden
Early on site detection of Phytophthora root rot, caused by Phytophthora sojae.
( Li et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hainan University
Shanghai Jiao Tong University
China Agricultural University
Post-Entry Quarantine Center for Tropical Plant, China
Bacterial resistance: Enhanced resistance against Candidatus Liberibacter spp., which causes significant economic losses globally.
(Ramasamy et al., 2024)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Texas A&
M AgriLife Research and Extension Center
Texas A&
M University
Texas A&
M AgriLife, USA
Fungal resistance: Assay for rapid detection of Diaporthe aspalathi, causal agent of Southern stem canker, which causes huge losses of soybean worldwide.
(Dong et al., 2024)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hainan University
Sanya Institute of China Agricultural University, China
Insect resistance: Apolygus lucorum are less attracted to the plant.
(Teng et al., 2024)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Yunnan University
Shanxi Agricultural University
National Plant Protection Scientific Observation and Experiment Station
Biocentury Transgene (China) Co. Ltd., China
Rapid detection of Bacillus cereus, which is a foodborne pathogen that can cause different diseases through production of enterotoxins.
( Li et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University
Guangzhou Wanlian Biotechnology Co., China
Fungal resistance: Enhanced resistance against Verticillium and Fusarium wilt, which threatens the cotton production world wide.
(Zhao et al., 2024)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University
Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China

Traits related to abiotic stress tolerance

Increased tolerance to salinity stress. Development of lines with reduced inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) content may enhance phosphate and mineral bioavailability. ICP6 is a major storage form of phosphate in cereal grains.
( Vicko et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Czech Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic
Drought tolerance and abscisic acid sensitivity.
( Lou et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Potassium deficiency tolerance and contribution to stomatal closure.
( Mao et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences
National Center of Rice Improvement of China
National Engineering Laboratory of Rice
South Base of National Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice of China, China
Salt tolerance.
( Duan et al,. 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Arsenic (As) tolerance. As is toxic to organisms and elevated As accumulation may pose health risks to humans.
( Duan et al., 2015 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Enhanced responses to abscisic acid (ABA), which plays an important role in drought stress responses in plants. Improved drought tolerance through stomatal regulation and increased primary root growth under non-stressed conditions.
( Ogata et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS)
RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science
University of Tsukuba, Japan
Enhanced resistance to salt and oxidative stress and increased grain yield.
( Alfatih et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Increased drought tolerance: suppresses xylem vessel proliferation, leading to lower water conductance, and reduced water-loss under water-deficit conditions.
(Illouz-Eliaz et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture
The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
Tolerance to salt stress.
( Tran et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Gyeongsang National University, South Korea
College of Agriculture
Bac Lieu University, Vietnam
Enhanced drought tolerance.
( Liu et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Drought tolerance.
( Kim D et al,. 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Montana State University, USA
Drought and salt tolerance.
( Kumar et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Bhartidasan University, India
Improved yield and cold tolerance. High yield and high cold tolerance were often antagonistic to each other.
( Zeng et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, China
Drought tolerance.
( Zhao et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hebei Normal University
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Altered cuticle properties to enhance drought tolerance.
( Negin et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel
Curled leaf phenotype and improved drought tolerance.
( Liao et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guangxi University
South China Agricultural University, China
Drought and salt tolerance.
( Curtin et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Minnesota, USA
The University of Newcastle, Australia
Modulate aluminium resistance. Aluminum (Al) toxicity is the main factor inhibiting plant root development and reducing crops yield in acidic soils.
( Zhang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences
China Agricultural University, China
University of California, USA
Increased tolerance to drought trough reducing water loss. Tuber development.
( Gonzales et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Wageningen University and Research, The Netherlands
Centro Nacional de Biotecnología – CSIC
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Spain
Enhanced the tolerance of plants to salt (NaCl), the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA), dehydration and polyethylene glycol (PEG) stresses.
( Yue et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University
Hunan Agricultural University, China
Drought tolerance by modulating lignin accumulation in roots.
( Bang et al, 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Seoul National University, South Korea
Salinity tolerance. Salinity stress is one of the most important abiotic stress factors affecting rice production worldwide.
( Lim et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Kangwon National University
Sangji University
Kyung Hee University, South Korea
Enhanced tolerance to heat stress involving ROS homeostasis. Less severe wilting and less membrane damage, lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents and higher activities and transcript levels of antioxidant enzymes, as well as higher expression of heat shock proteins and genes encoding heat stress transcription factors.
( Yu et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University
Renmin University of China, China
Enhanced salinity tolerance.
( Zhang et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University
Shanghai Agrobiological Gene Center, China
Higher tolerance to salt and osmotic stress through reduced stomatal conductance coupled with increased leaf relative water content and Abscisic acid (ABA) content under normal and stressful conditions.
( Bouzroud et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Université Mohammed V de Rabat, Morocco
Université de Toulouse, France
Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Brazil
Enhanced salinity stress tolerance.
( Wang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northeast Normal University
Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Linyi University
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Drought resistance.
( Zhang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Jilin Agricultural University, China
Improved Cadmium (Cd)-tolerance by reducing the Cd transport from vacuole to cytosol in tobacco leaves.
( Jia et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Henan Agricultural University
Xiamen University, China
Enhances adaptation to direct-seeding on wet land and tolerance to drought stress in rice. Water stress is the most important factor limiting rice agriculture by either floods or drought.
( Zhang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University
Shanghai Agrobiological Gene Center, China
Increased tolerance to salinity stress. Improved rice yields in saline paddy fields by root angle modifications to adapt to climate change.
( Kitomi et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO)
Tohoku University
Institute of Agrobiological Sciences
Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)
Advanced Analysis Center
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Japan
Conferred thermotolerance and the stability of heat shock proteins.
( Huang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China
Shandong (Linyi) Institute of Modern Agriculture, China
Regulated circadian clock: circadian clock measures and conveys day length information to control rhythmic hypocotyl growth in photoperiodic conditions, to achieve optimal fitness. Mutants showed longer hypocotyls, lower core circadian clock morning component mRNA and protein levels, and a shorter circadian rhythm. Exposure to high temperature due to global warming.
(Kim et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Institute of Agricultural Science
Korea Polar Research Institute
Seoul National University College of Medicine, South Korea
More tolerant to chilling stress: increased survival rate, decreased membrane permeability, and reduced lipid peroxidation.
(Xu et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Henan University of Science and Technology
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Reduced stomatal density. Intrinsic water-use efficiency was significantly impacted under both well-watered and drought conditions, making reduced stomatal density as a preferable trait.
( Clemens et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of California
San Diego State University, USA
Improved salt stress resistance. Significant increase in the shoot weight, the total chlorophyll content, and the chlorophyll fluorescence under salt stress. Also high antioxidant activities coincided with less reactive oxygen species (ROS).
( Shah Alam et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University, China
Taif University, Saudi Arabia
Alexandria University, Egypt
Better salinity tolerance.
( Ma et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ningbo Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Nanjing Agricultural University, China
Chilling tolerance.
( Zhang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Jilin University, China
Improved rice growth with increased plant height, biomass, and chlorophyll content but with a lower degree of oxidative injury and Cd accumulation.
( Cao et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanjing Agricultural University
Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Reduced cuticle permeability and enhanced drought tolerance.
( He et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northwest A&
F University
USA
University of British Columbia, Canada
Drought tolerance.
( Njuguna et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ghent University
Center for Plant Systems Biology, Belgium
Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya
Salt tolerance during the seedling stage.
( Chen et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Huazhong Agriculture University
Hubei Hongshan Laboratory, China
Improved drought tolerance and yield.
( Usman et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guangxi University
South China Agricultural University, China
Increased drought tolerance.
( Xu et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
R&
D Center of China Tobacco Yunnan Industrial Co. Ltd.
Sichuan Agriculture University, China
Enhanced drought tolerance
( Wu et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Improved salinity tolerance.
( Wang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Taiwan University, Taiwan
University of North Carolina, USA
Reduced uptake of lead (Pb). Lead is one of the most toxic metals affecting human health globally and food is an important source of chronic Pb exposure in humans.
( Chang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanjing Agricultural University, China
Increased water-deficit tolerance.
( Lv et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chongqing University, China
Reduced cadmium content. Cadmium poses a health treat, as it is a highly toxic heavy metal for most living organisms.
( Hao et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hunan University of Arts and Science
Hunan Normal University, China
Increased tolerance to cold stress.
( Teper-Bamnolker et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
The Volcani Institute
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Danziger Innovations Limited, Israel
Increased tolerance to cadmium toxicity.
( Yue et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University
Hangzhou Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Increased drought tolerance.
( Abdallah et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cairo University, Egypt
Crop Improvement and Genetics Unit, USA
Improved drought tolerance and larger grain yield under drought stress.
( Feng et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
State Key Laboratory of Crop Gene Exploration and Utilization in Southwest China
Maize Research Institute of Sichuan Agricultural University, China
Increased tolerance to low temperatures.
( Wang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Tianjin Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Nankai University
University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, China
Increased drought tolerance. Plants showed lower ion leakage and higher proline content upon abiotic stress.
( Kim et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chungbuk National University
Hankyong National University

Institute of Korean Prehistory, South Korea
Reduced arsenic content and increased arsenic tolerance. Arsenic is toxic to organisms and elevated its accumulation may pose health risks to humans.
( Wang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Henan Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Henan Agricultural University, China
Increased root length, which can restore good performance under water stress.
( Gabay et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of California
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, USA
University of Haifa, Israel
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET)
Universidad Nacional de San Martín (UNSAM), Argentina
Fudan University
China Agricultural University, China
Karolinska Institutet, Sweden
Removal of harmful pericarp character of weedy rice while increasing drought tolerance. Weedy rice has the potential of domestication into direct-seeding rice with strong drought tolerance.
( Kong et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanjing Agricultural University, China
Reduction in cadmium accumulation. Cadmium is a heavy metal, harmful for human health.
( Yao et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Sichuan University
Science and Technology Innovation Center of Sichuan Modern Seed Industry Group, China
Improved drought tolerance.
( Linghu et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hybrid Rapeseed Research Center of Shaanxi Province
Northwest A &
F University, China
Enhanced drought tolerance.
( Wang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Mexico
Enhanced resistance to drought stress with increased osmotic adjustment, antioxidant activity, photosynthetic efficiency and decreased water loss rate.
( Liu et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Tobacco Research Institute
Key Laboratory of Tobacco Genetic Improvement and Biotechnology
Shenzhen Yupeng Technology Co.
Sichuan Tobacco Corporation, China
Enhanced cadmium resistance with reduced cadmium accumulation in roots and shoots. Cadmium is a heavy metal, harmful for human health.
( Dang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shenyang Agricultural University/Key Laboratory of Northern geng Super Rice Breeding, China
Fruits insensitive to the effectss of high temperature stress and with reduced browning phenotype caused by high temperatures.
( Wang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northwest A &
F University
College of Horticultural Science and Engineering, China
Improved drought and salt tolerance.
( Zhang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northeast Forestry University
Chinese Academy of Forestry
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Nanjing Forestry University, China
Increased cuticular wax biosynthesis resulting in enhanced drought tolerance.
( Shim et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Seoul National University
Incheon National University
Kyung Hee University, South Korea
Salt-tolerant plants.
( Jingfang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Lianyungang Academy of Agricultural Science
Nanjing Agricultural University
Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Enhanced rice salinity tolerance and absisic acid hypersensitivity.
( Yan et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanchang University, China
Broad-spectrum stress tolerance: enhanced low temperature, salinity, Pseudoperonospora cubensis and water-deficit tolerance.
(Dong et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
University of California, USA
Early heading phenotype that escapes from cold stress and achieves high yield potential.
( Zhou et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanjing Agricultural University
Institute of Lianyungang Agricultural Science of Xuhuai Area/Lianyungang Institute of Agricultural Sciences
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Enhanced drought tolerance.
( Qiu et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Southwest University, China
Cold tolerance.
( Park et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Institute of Crop Science
Kyungpook National University, South Korea
Enhanced tolerance to drought and salt stress.
( Shen et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chongqing University
Yunnan Agricultural University, China
Lower water loss rate under drought conditions.
( Wang et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Gansu Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Reduced cadmium (Cd) accumulation and enhanceed Cd resistance. Cd accumulation in the edible parts of the plant pose potential risks to human health.
( Zheng et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhengzhou Tobacco Research Institute of CNTC
China Tobacco Yunnan Industrial Co. LTD
Beijing Life Science Academy (BLSA)
Zhengzhou University, China
Enhanced chilling tolerance at seedling stage without yield loss.
( Deng et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hunan Agricultural University
Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Yuelushan Laboratory, China
Improved lodging resistance.
( Wakasa et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Institute of Agrobiological Sciences
Institute of Crop Sciences, Japan
Decreased Cadmium (Cd) accumulation. Consumption of crops that absorb Cd from the soil can cause serious health problems in humans.
( He et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Yunnan Agricultural University, China
Enhanced salt tolerance.
( Ly et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology
Agricultural Genetics Institute, Vietnam
Enhanced cold tolerance.
( Fan et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Liaocheng University, China
Reduced arsenic content. Arsenic accumulation in rice poses a threat to human health.
( Singh et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR)
CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute
CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute, India
Increased salt-tolerance.
( Antonova et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology (IPAE)
N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR)
Institute of Cytology and Genetics (ICG), Russia
Enhanced drought resistance through decreased stomata density and reduced water loss.
( Lv et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University
Sanya Institute of China Agricultural University, China
Enhanced drought stress tolerance.
( Yang et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Anhui Agricultural University, China
Improved drought tolerance.
( D'Incà., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University Roma Tre
Universit `a di Trieste
IOAG-BIOTECC.R. Casaccia
Sapienza University of Rome
University of Milano
Roma Tre Section
Instituto Nazionale Biostrutture e Biosistemi (INBB)
National Biodiversity Future Center, Italy
Enhanced salt tolerance and alkali resistance among other resistances.
( Luo et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northeast Agricultural University/Key Laboratory of Soybean Biology of the Chinese Education Ministry
Keshan Branch of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Harbin Normal University, China
Shorter internode length, reduced plant height and a thicker culm wall, which might indicate lodging resistance.
( Zhao et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Liaoning Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China

Traits related to improved food/feed quality

Amylose-free starch in tubers.
( Toinga-Villafuerte et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Texas A&
M University, USA
Mutant cell lines doubled the accumulation level of anthocyanins biosynthesized. The production of these important pigments was stabilized over time.
( D'Amelia et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Research Council of Italy
University of Naples Federico II
Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Italy
Low tartaric acid.
( Ren et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Increased grain hardness and reduced grain width. Grain hardness index of hina mutants was 95.5 on average, while that of the wild type was only 53.7, indicating successful conversion of soft barley into hard barley.Grain hardness, defined as the resistance of the kernel to deformation, is the most important and defining quality of barley and wheat.
( Jiang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Qinghai Normal University
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Low amylose content to improve the rice eating quality.
( Mao et al., 2022 )

Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Guangdong Key Laboratory of New Technology in Rice Breeding
Guangdong Rice Engineering Laboratory, China
Promoted anthocyanin accumulation. Anthocyanins are plant secondary metabolites with a variety of biological functions.
( Tu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northwest A&
F University, China
Improved fatty acid content: increased content of oleic acid, reduced erucic acid levels and slightly decreased polyunsaturated fatty acids content. Fatty acid composition is important for human health and shelf life.
(Shi et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Fine-tuning the amylose content, one of the major contributors to the eating and cooking quality.
( Zhang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shanghai Normal University, China
Reducing polyunsaturated fatty acids content and increased content of monounsaturated fatty acids. High levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in natural soybean oil renders the oil susceptible to the development of unpalatable flavors and trans fatty acids.
( Fu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Fragrant glutinous hybrid rice.
( Tian et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Waxy rice which lacks amylose. Waxy rice is regarded as a high-quality rice variant, also known as glutinous rice. Due to the unique properties of waxy rice starch, it is extensively used in the chemical industry, medicine, and daily human life.
( Fu et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine
Rice Research Institute of Sichuan Agricultural University
Meishan Dongpo District Agricultural and Rural Bureau, China
Altered gliadin levels resulting in improved end-use quality and reduced gluten epitopes associated with celiac disease. Gliadins are important for wheat end-use traits.
( Liu et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Research Centre for Cereal and Industrial Crops, Italy
Reduced browning and acrylamide. Acrylamide is a contaminant which forms during the baking, toasting and high-temperature processing of foods and is regarded as a potential carcinogen and neurotoxin.
( Nguyen Phuoc Ly et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Murdoch University, Australia
Increased contents of GABA, protein, crude fat, and various mineral contents. GABA-rich rice varieties can promote human nutrition, and ensure health.
( Chen et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, China
Increased amylose content in the seeds, thus a lower Glycemic Index (GI) value. Low GI rice is preferred to avoid a sudden rise in glucose in the bloodstream. Starch with a high GI threatens healthy individuals to get diabetes type II and proves extremely harmful for existing diabetes type II patients.
( Jameel et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Jamia Millia Islamia
International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, India
King Saud University, Saudi Arabia
Reduced phytic acid content in soybean seeds. Monogastric animals are unable to digest phytic acid, making phytic acid phosphorous in animal waste one of the major causes of environmental phosphorus pollution.
( Song et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Dong-A University
Korea Research Institute of Bioscience Biotechnology (KRIBB), South Korea
Improved seed protein content.
( Shen et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Corteva Agriscience
University of Arizona, USA
Enriched levels of Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). GABA lowers blood pressure, has anti-aging effects, and activates the liver and kidney.
( Chen et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Low glutelin content in the rice germplasm: patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and phenylketonuria (PKU) need to eat rice with low glutelin content.
(Chen et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanjing Branch of Chinese National Center for Rice Improvement
Yangzhou University
Henan Agricultural University
Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Australia
Improved cold storage and processing traits: lower levels of reduced sugars
(Yasmeen et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of the Punjab, Pakistan
Reduction of phytic acid (PA) in seeds. PA has adverse effects on essential mineral absorption and thus is considered as an anti-nutritive for monogastric animals.
( Khan et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University
Yangtze University, China
Improved grain quality. The amylose content, gel consistency and pasting viscosity of grain starches are influencing the grain appearance, cooking/eating quality and starch physical characters.
( Zeng et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro‐Bioresources
Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture
South China Agricultural University, China
Improved quality by reduced grain protein content (GPC). High GPC is negatively correlated between protein content and peak viscosity and breakdown value. High GPC is also positively correlated to protein content and hardness.
( Wang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology/Key Laboratory of Plant Functional Genomics of the Ministry of Education/Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genomics and Molecular Breeding
Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Modern Production Technology of Grain Crops
Agricultural College of Yangzhou University, China
Boosted cytokinin biosynthesis and elevated cucumber fruit wart formation. Warty fruit is an important quality trait that greatly affects market value and fruit appearance.
( Wang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Ultra-low nicotine level
( Burner et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
North Carolina State University, USA
Improved cadmium tolerance by reducing the Cd transport from vacuole to cytosol in tobacco leaves.
( Jia et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Henan Agricultural University
Xiamen University, China
Facilitated Isoproturon Metabolism and Detoxification: Improved growth, the Isoproturon (IPU)-induced cellular damage was attenuated, and IPU accumulation was significantly repressed
(Zhai et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanjing Agricultural University, China
Sweeter kernels due to the accumulation of sugar rather than starch and waxy with an altered amylose/amylopectin ratio.
( Dong et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement
Anhui Agricultural University, China
Modified composition: accumulation of fivefold more starch than WT leaves, and more sucrose as well. Architectural changes
(Bezrutczyk et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf
Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Germany
Department of Plant Biology, Carnegie Science, USA
Production of opaque seeds with depleted starch reserves. Reduced starch content and increased amylose content. Accumulation of multiple sugars, fatty acids, amino acids and phytosterols.
( Baysal et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Lleida-Agrotecnio Center
Catalan Institute for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), Spain
Royal Holloway University of London, UK
Increased carotenoid, lycopene, and β-carotene.
( Hunziker et al., 2020 )

BE
University of Tsukuba
Kobe University
Institute of Vegetable and Floricultural Science
NARO, Japan
Increased gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulation by 7 to 15 fold while having variable effects on plant and fruit size and yield. GABA is a nonproteogenic amino acid and has health-promoting functions.
( Nonaka et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Tsukuba, Japan
Increased gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA): 1.34-fold to 3.50-fold increase in GABA accumulation. GABA is a nonprotegeonomic amino acid with health-promoting functions.
(Li et al., 2017)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Enhanced soybean aroma and functional marker for improving soybean flavor.
( Qian et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Science
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China
Zhejiang University of Technology
Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Negligible levels of the possibly toxic steroidal glykoalkaloids (SGAs), but enhanced levels of steroidal saponins, which has pharmaceutically useful functions.
( Akiyama et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Kobe University
Riken Center for Sustainable Resource Science
Osaka University, Japan
Improved starch quality. Starch has many food and technical applications and is often modified to certain specifications.
( Andersson et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden
Specific differences in grain morphology, composition and (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan content. Barley rich in (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan, a source of fermentable dietary fibre, is useful to protect against various human health conditions. However, low grain (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan content is preferred for brewing and distilling.
( Garcia-Gimenez et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
The James Hutton Institute
University of Dundee, UK
University of Adelaide
La Trobe University, Australia
Increased NH4+ and PO43− uptake, and photosynthetic activity under high CO2 conditions in rice. Largely increased panicle weight. Improved grain appearance quality or a decrease in the number of chalky grains.
( Iwamoto et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Japan
Increased RS. Cereals high in RS may be beneficial to improve human health and reduce the risk of diet-related chronic diseases.
( Biswas et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Texas A&
M Univ.
Avance Biosciences Inc., USA
Reduced Cd accumulation.
( Chen et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
South China Agricultural University
Guangdong Academy of Sciences, China
Carotenoid-enriched. Carotenoids, the source of pro vitamin A, are an essential component of dietary antioxidants.
( Dong et al., 2020 )
SDN3
CRISPR/Cas
University of California
Innovative Genomics Institute
The Joint Bioenergy Institute, USA
Enhanced soluble sugar content in tomato fruit. Soluble sugar improves the sweetness and increases tomato sauce yield.
( Wang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Xinjiang Agricultural University, China
Increased sugar content without decreased fruit weight. Sugar content is one of the most important quality traits of tomato.
( Kawaguchi et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nagoya University
Kobe University
RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science
University of Tsukuba, Japan
Aromatic maize.
( Wang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shandong Normal University
Bellagen Biotechnology Co. Ltd
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Modified fatty acid profile: increased oleic acid, decreased linoleic and linolenic acid content.
(Huang et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Yellow-seed production, a desirable trait with great potential for improving seed quality in Brassica crops. The formation of seed colour is due to the deposition of the oxidized form of a flavonoid, called proanthocyanidins (PA). Yellow seeds have a higher oil content.
( Zhai et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
High fruit malate accumulation. Malate is a primary organic acid in tomato and a crucial compound that contributes to fruit flavor and palatability.
( Ye et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Cornell University, USA
Altered starch properties. Changes in amylopectin chain-lengths, starch granule initiation and branching frequency.
( Tuncel et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Norwich Research Park, UK
Increased sucrose content.
( Ren et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Beijing Key Laboratory of Vegetable Germplasm Improvement
Capital Normal University
China Agricultural University, China
Cornell University
Robert W. Holley Center for Agriculture and Health, USA
Fragrant rice. Introduction of aroma into any non-aromatic rice varieties.
( Ashokkumar et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Increased lysophospholipid content and enhanced cooking and eating quality. Lysophospholipid (LPL) is derived from the hydrolysis of phospholipids and plays an important role in rice grain quality.
( Khan et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University, China
Increased carotene accumulation in rice endosperm.
( Shao et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Key Laboratory of Rice Biology and Genetic Breeding, China
Improved starch quality. Reduced amylopectin and increased amylose percentage.
( Wang et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences
Shanghai Sanshu Biotechnology Co. LTD
Chinese Academy of Science, China
University of Kentucky, USA
Biofortification: Enhanced Zinc and Manganese tolerance and increased Zinc and Manganese accumulation in rice grains.
(Qiao et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shenzhen University
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
High-amylose content (up to 56% in apparent amylose content) and resistant starch (up to 35%).
( Luo et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Shanghai Sanshu Biotechnology Co.,
Guangxi Subtropical Crops Research Institute, China
Regulate cucumber fruit wart formation. Warty fruit in cucumber is an important quality trait that greatly affects fruit appearance.
( Wang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Aromatic three-line hybrid.
( Hui et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China National Rice Research Institute, China
Increased grain amylose content. Improving grain quality is one of the most important goals in rice breeding. Contribute to the breeding of rice cultivars with better eating and cooking quality, as cooking and eating quality is determined from amylose content.
( Liu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hunan Agricultural University
China National Seed Group Co., China
Removing the major allergen to tackle food allergies.
( Assou et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Leibniz Universität Hannover
Technische Universität Braunschweig, Germany
Important metabolic changes affecting tomato fruit quality. Reduced contents of the anti-nutrient oxalic acid.
( Gago et al., 2017 )
SDN1
ZFN
University of Algarve, Portugal
Centre for Research and Technology Hellas
Technological Educational Institution of Crete, Greece
Reduced steroidal glycoalkaloids.
( Yasumoto et al., 2019 )

TALENs
Osaka University
RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science
Kobe University, Japan
Fine-tuning sugar content. Consumer preference varies along regional, cultural, and age lines, thus the solution is to create a continuum of phenotypic “taste” changes
( Xing et al., 2020 )

BE
Chinese Academy of Sciences
China Agricultural University, China
Reduces phytic acid (anti-nutrient) and improves iron and zinc accumulation in wheat grains. Biofortification.
( Ibrahim et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad
National Agricultural Research Centre, Pakistan
Changing grain composition: decrease in the prolamines, an increase in the glutenins, increased starch content, amylose content, and β-glucan content. The protein matrix surrounding the starch granules was increased.
(Yang et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Sichuan Agricultural University, China
Norwich Research Park, UK
CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Australia
Attenuated toxic cyanogen production. Cassava produces toxic cyanogenic compounds and requires food processing for safe consumption.
( Gomez et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of California
Donald Danforth Plant Science Center
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University
Chan-Zuckerberg BioHub, USA
Increased digestibility and protein quality. Reduced kafirin levels. Kafirins are the major storage proteins in sorghum grains and form protein bodies with poor digestibility. Kafirins are devoid of the essential amino acid lysine, they also impart poor protein quality to the kernel.
( Li et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Nebraska
University of Missouri, USA
Reduced phytic acid (PA) synthesis in seeds, PA is an anti-nutritional compound.
( Liang et al., 2013 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
High gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content. GABA plays a key role in plant stress responses, growth, development and as a nutritional component of grain can also reduce the likelihood of hypertension and diabetes. Increased amino acid content. Higher seed weight and seed protein content.
( Akama et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shimane University
Institute of Agrobiological Sciences
National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Yokohama City University, Japan
Increased flavonoid content, functioning as allelochemicals and insect deterrents.
( Lam et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
The University of Hong Kong
The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Shenzhen
Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Nanjing Forestry University, China
Kyoto University, Japan
Low Cadmium (Cd) accumulating. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential heavy metal that is toxic to virtually all living organisms, including plants.
( Songmei et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University
Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Grain Industry
Zhejiang University
Jiaxing Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Lowering phytate synthesis in seeds. Phytate is an anti-nutritient.
( Vlčko and Ohnoutková, 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Czech Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic
Lower levels of D hordein. D hordein is one of the storage proteins in the grain, with a negative effect on malting quality.
( Li et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Qinghai Province Key Laboratory of Crop Molecular Breeding
Chinese Academy of Sciences
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Reduction of phytic acid (PA) in seeds. PA has adverse effects on essential mineral absorption and thus is considered as an anti-nutritive for monogastric animals.
( Sashidhar et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel
Max-Planck-Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Germany
Altered protein composition due to mutations in seed storage proteins. Two major families of storage proteins, account for about 70% of total soy seed protein. Some major biochemical components influencing the quality of soy food products, for example tofu, are both the quantity and quality of storage proteins in soybean seeds.
( Li et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
Western University
Harrow Research and Development Centre, Canada
Sun Yat-sen University
Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Minnan Normal University
China
Reduced content of saturated fatty acids: low palmitic and high oleic acid. Great potential for improving peanut oil quality for human health.
(Tang et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Qingdao Agricultural University, China
Altered lignin composition: decreased syringyl monolignol / guaiacylmonolignol (S/G) ratio. The monolignol ratio has been proposed to affect biomass recalcitrance and the resistance to plant disease.
(Cao et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
SouthwestUniversity, China
University of Wisconsin, USA
Increased grain weight and grain size. Carbohydrate and total protein levels also increased.
( Guo et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Sichuan Agricultural University, China
University of California, USA
Increased tolerance to the heavy metal Cadmium.
( Liu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University
Agricultural Ministry of China, China
Fragrant sorghum. No fragrant sorghums are currently on the market. Extraordinary aromatic smell in both seeds and leaves. Experiments showed that fragrant sorghum leaves were attractable for animal feeding.
( Zhang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Animal facility Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, China
Imrpoved rice eating and cooking quality with down-regulated rice grain protein content, which is negatively regulated to ECQ.
( Yang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Yangzhou University, China
Enhancing the accumulation of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, essential components of a healthy, balanced diet.
( Han et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Rothamsted Research, UK
Montana State University, USA
Glucoraphanin(GR)-enriched broccoli. Broccoli contains important nutritional components and beneficial phytochemicals. GR, a major glucosinolate (GSL), protects the body against several chronic diseases.
( Kim et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Sejong University
Jeonbuk National University
Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology
Asia Seed Company Limited, South Korea
Enhanced oil composition. Increased oleic acid content and significant decreases in the less desirable polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid (i.e. a decrease from ~16% to <4%) and linolenic acid (a decrease from ~35% to <10%).
( Jiang et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Nebraska
University of California, USA
Increasing seed oil content (SOC).
( Zhang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China
Decreased seed size and promoted seed germination. To improve consumer experience for flesh-consumed watermelons, no (or small and sparse) seeds are better because the flesh portion is larger.
( Wang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Beijing Key Laboratory of Vegetable Germplasm Improvement, China
Improved aleurone layer with enhanced grain protein content. Improved grain nutritional quality by improved accumulation of essential dietary minerals (Fe, Zn, K, P, Ca) in the endosperm of rice grain. Improved root and shoot architecture.
( Achary et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, India
Generation of a new glutinous Photothermosensitive Genic-Male-Sterile (PTGMS) line with a low amylose content. PTMGS line combines high-quality and high-light-efficiency use, disease and stress resistance.
( Teng et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guangxi University
South China Agricultural University, China
Generation of beta-carotene-enriched banana fruits. Carotenoids, the source of pro vitamin A, are an essential component of dietary antioxidants. Low intakes and poor bioavailability of provitamine A from the vegetarian diet are considered the main reasons for the widespread prevalence of Vitamine A deficiency.
( Kaur et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ministry of Science and Technology (Government of India)
Panjab University, India
Increased levels of oleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid. Camelina is a low-input oilseed crop. It is necessary to ameloriate fatty acid composition in oils to meet different application requirements.
( Ozseyhan et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Montana State University, USA
Increased levels of oleic acid, decreased levels of fatty acids.
( Morineau et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Université Paris-Saclay, France
Lower oil content and altered fatty acid composition. Most commercially produced oil seeds synthesize only a relatively small range of fatty acids, offering limited functionality.
( Aznar-Moreno et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Kansas State University, USA
Improved fatty acid composition. The content and abundance of fatty acids play an important role in nutritional and processing applications of oilseeds.
( Okuzaki et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Tamagawa University
Osaka Prefecture University
Tamagawa University, Japan
Decreases in palmitic acid, increased total C18 and reduced total saturated fatty acid contents. Reduced saturated fat content is connected to lowered cardiovascular disease rate.
( Gupta et al., 2012 )
SDN1
ZFN
Dow AgroSciences
Sangamo BioSciences, USA
Reduction of amylose content (AC). AC is the predominant factor determining rice eating and cooking quality.
( He et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northeast Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Northeast Agricultural University, China
Reduction in cadmium accumulation. Cadmium is a heavy metal, harmful for human health. Cadmium accumulation represents a severe threat to people consuming rice as a staple food.
( Yang et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanjing Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
High-quality sugar production by rice (98% sucrose content). Carbohydrates are an essential energy-source. Sugarcane and sugar beet were the only two crop plants used to produce sugar.
( Honma et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, China
Faculty of Engineering
Kitami Institute of Technology
NagoyaUniversity
Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan
Carnegie Institution for Science, USA
Reduce malnutrition by decreasing antinutrient phytic acid (PA) and increasing Iron and Zinc accumulation. PA has adverse effects on essential mineral absorption and thus is considered as an anti-nutritive for monogastric animals.
( Ibrahim et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad
National Agricultural Research Centre, Pakistan
Production of high amylose and resistant starch rice. Starch accounts for 80 to 90% of the total mass of rice seeds and is low in resistant starch (RS), which is beneficial in preventing various diseases. Starch with high amylose content (AC) and RS have a lower GI value. Foods with low GI value have beneficial effects on glycemic control.
( Wang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Chiayi University
Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute Chiayi Agricultural Experiment Branch, Taiwan
Fragrance by accumulation of the natural aroma substance 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP). Fragrance is one of the most important rice quality traits, with 2AP being the major contributor to aroma.
( Tang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Hubei Academy of Agriculture Sciences
Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Agricultural Research Center, Egypt
Improved amylose levels to influence grain eating and cooking quality (ECQ).
( Huang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Yangzhou University, China
Promoted phenolic acid biosynthesis. Salvia is tradional Chinese medicine with great medical value to treat cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. Phenolic acids make up a big part of the bioactive compounds.
( Shi et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
East China University of Science and Technology
Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, China
University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA
Generation of seed lipoxygenase-free soybean. Lipoxygenases are responsible for an unpleasant beany flavor by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids, restricting human consumption.
( Wang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, China
Increased soya bean isoflavone content and resistance to soya bean mosaic virus. Isoflavonoids play a critical role in plant-environment interactions and are beneficial to human health.
( Zhang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanjing Agricultural University
Anhui Academy of Agricultural Science
Guangzhou University, China
High oleic, low linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid phenotype. High concentration of linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids causes oxidative instability.
( Do et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Missouri, USA
Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Vietnam
Reduced raffinose family oligosaccharide (RFO) levels in seeds. Human and other monogastric animals cannot digest major soluble carbohydrates, RFOs.
( Le et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Vietnam
University of Missouri, USA
Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research
Germany
High oleic acid, low linoleic content.
( al Amin et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Jilin Agricultural University, China
Low polyunsaturated fats content. Soybean oil is high in polyunsaturated fats and is often partially hydrogenated. The trans-fatty acids produced through hydrogenation pose a health threat.
( Haun et al., 2014 )
SDN1
TALENs
Cellectis plant sciences Inc., USA
High oleic and low linolenic oil to improve nutritional characteristics, increase shelf-life and frying stability.
( Demorest et al., 2016 )
SDN1
TALENs
Cellectis plant science Inc.
Calyxt, USA
Improvement of starch quality.
( Wang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Science

Shanghai Sanshu Biotechnology Co.
LTD, China
University of Kentucky, USA
Parthenocarpy: seedless tomato. Industrial purposes and direct eating quality.
(Klap et al., 2016)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Agricultural Research Organization, Israel
Seedless tomatoes for industrial purposes and direct eating quality.
( Ueta et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Tokushima University, Japan
Increased gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) content. GABA is a nonproteogenic amino acid with health-promoting functions.
( Lee et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Increased lycopene content. Lycopene plays a role in treating chronic diseases and lowering the risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Enhanced contents of lycopene, phytoene, prolycopene, a-carotene, and lutein.
( Li et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Increased protein content and increased grain weight. Increase in grain protein content has a positive effect on flour protein content and gluten strength, two quality parameters.
( Zhang et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Shandong Normal University, China
Reduced gluten content. Coeliac disease is an autoimmune disorder triggered in genetically predisposed individuals by the ingestion of gluten proteins.
( Sánchez-León,et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (IASCSIC), Spain
University of Minnesota, USA
Modification of starch composition, structure and properties. Foods with a high amylose content (AC) and resistant starch (RS) offer potential to improve human health and lower the risk of serious non-infectious diseases.
( Li et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS)
Nanjing Agricultural University, China
Increased iron (Fe) and magnesium (Mn) content for biofortification: increasing the intrinsic nutritional value of crops.
(Connorton et al., 2017)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
John Innes Centre
University of East Anglia, UK
Increased grain number per spikelet.
( Zhang et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Missouri
South Dakota State University
University of California
Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, USA
University of Bristol, UK
Reduce allergen proteins. Structural and metabolic proteins, like α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors are involved in the onset of wheat allergies (bakers' asthma) and probably Non-Coeliac Wheat Sensitivity (NCWS).
( Camerlengo et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Tuscia, Italy
Rothamsted Research, UK
Impasse Thérèse Bertrand-Fontaine, France
Reduced accumulation of free asparagine, the precursor for acrylamide. Acrylamide is a contaminant which forms during the baking, toasting and high-temperature processing of foods made from wheat.
( Raffan et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Rothamsted Research
University of Bristol, UK
Reduced flavonoids and improved fatty acid composition with higher linoleic acid and linolenic acid, valuable for rapeseed germplasm and breeding. The genetic improvement has great significance in the economic value of rapeseeds.
( Xie et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Yangzhou University
The Ministry of Education of China, China
University of Western Australia, Australia
Reduce or eliminate amylose content in root starch. Amylose influences the physicochemical properties of starch during cooking and processing.
( Bull et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Institute of Molecular Plant Biology, Switzerland
High levels of beta-carotene accumulation.
( Lu et al., 2006 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cornell University
University of Minnesota, USA
High-oleic acid content. Oleic acid has better oxidative stability than linoleic acid due to its monounsaturated nature. High levels of linoleic acid reduces the oxidative stability of cottonseed oil, which can cause rancidity, a short shelf life and production of detrimental trans-fatty acids.
( Chen et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cotton Research Center of Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Increased vitamin C content, increased oxidation stress tolerance and increased ascorbate content.
( Zhang et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Waxy phenotype, abolition of amylose.
( Qi et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Glossy phenotype. Reduced epicuticular wax in leaves.
( Char et al., 2015 )
SDN1
TALENs
Iowa State University, USA
Reduced phytic acid (PA) synthesis in seeds, PA is an anti-nutritional compound.
( Liang et al., 2013 )
SDN1
TALENs
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Alteration of the inositol phosphate profile in developing seeds.
( Shukla et al., 2009 )
SDN1
ZFN
Dow AgroSciences
Sangamo BioSciences, USA
Reduced phytate production + herbicide tolerance. Generation of a dual phenotype through targeted manipulation of a single locus.
( Shukla et al., 2009 )
SDN3
ZFN
Dow AgroScience, USA
Conversion of a normal maize hybrid into a waxy version, a specialty that produces mainly amylopectin starch with special food or industrial values and thus has high economic value.
( Qi et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Anhui Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement, China
Improved fatty acid content: high oleic acid, decreased linoleic acid content. FA composition is important for human health and shelf life.
(Wen et al., 2018)
SDN1
TALENs
Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
High-oleic acid content. Oleic acid has increased oxidative stability compared to linolenic and linoleic acid, improving fuel stability and the oil's suitability for high-temperature food applications, for example frying.
( Jarvis et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Illinois State University
University of North Texas
University of Nebraska-Lincoln, USA
Reduction of harmful ingredients: toxic steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs).
(Sawai et al., 2014)
SDN1
TALENs
RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science
Chiba University, Japan
Low erucic acid (EA) content. Composition of fatty acids affects the edible and processing quality of vegetable oils. EA is potentially to cause health problems.
( Liu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Reduced amount of saturated fatty acids (FA) in soybean seeds for nutrititional improvement. FA are linked to cardiovascular diseases.
( Ma et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University, China
La Trobe University, Australia
Complete abolition of glycoalkaloids, causing a bitter taste and toxic to various organisms.
( Nakayasu et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Kobe University, Japan
Starch with an increased amylose ratio and elongated amylopectin chains. In food products, high amylose content and long amylopectin chains contribute to a low glycaemic index (GI) after intake, playing a role in health benefits.
( Zhao et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET)
Laboratorio de Agrobiotecnología (INTA), Argentina
Reduction of steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs). SGAs in most potato tissues are toxic to humans when the fresh weight is over 200mg/kg. High SGAs content also damage the quality of potato tubers.
( Zheng et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Qinghai University, China
Improve glutinosity in elite varieties. Decreased amylose content without affecting other desirable agronomic traits.
( Zhang et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Purdue University
University of Queensland, USA
Fragrant rice.
( Shan et al., 2015 )
SDN1
TALENs
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Increased amylose content. Cereals high in amylose content (AC) and resistant starch (RS) offer potential health benefits and reduce risks of diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes and certain colon and rectum cancers.
( Sun et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
University of California, USA
University of Liege, Belgium
Reduced arsenic content, a highly toxic metalloid harming human health. Inorganic Arsenic is listed as a carcinogen.
( Ye et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Altered fatty acid composition. High oleic/low linoleic acid rice. Oleic acid has potential health benefits and helps decrease lifestyle disease.
( Abe et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Japan
Reduced cesium content. The production of radiocesium in food in contaminated soils is a serious health concern.
( Nieves-Cordones et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Université Montpellier, France
Reduced cadmium content. Cadmium poses a health treath, as it is a highly toxic heavy metal for most living organisms.
( Tang et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hunan Agricultural University, Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center, Normal University, China
Carotenoid accumulation to solve the problem of vitamin A deficiency that is prevalent in developing countries.
( Endo et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Ishikawa Prefectural University, Japan
Fine-tuning the amylose content, one of the major contributors to the eating and cooking quality.
( Xu et al., 2021 )

BE
Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Nanjing Branch of Chinese National Center for Rice Improvement
Yangzhou University
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Australia
Increased sugar and amino acid content leading to improved fruit quality.
( Nguyen et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology
Food Industries Research Institute, Vietnam
University of Missouri, USA
Fragrant rice by introducing aroma into non-aromatic rice varieties. The genome edited fragrant rice was then used as starting material for molecular breeding to introduce both fragrance and high anthocyanin levels in rice.
( Shi et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agriculture Sciences (CAAS)
Tianjin Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Chengdu National Agricultural Science and Technology Center, China
Lowered amylose content and viscosity, risen gel consistency and gelatinization temperature values, all resulting in improved eating and cooking quality.
( Song et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Jiangsu University
Institute of Food Crops
Yangzhou University, China
Glossy sheat phenotype.
( Gerasimova et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Vavilov Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR)
Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), Germany
Improved starch quality by reducing the levels of amylose, thus increasing the amylopectin content.
( Ali et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute (AGERI)
Ain Shams University Faculty of Agriculture, Egypt
Large parthenocarpic fruits. Parthenocarpy, also known as seedless fruits, is preferred by consumers and it ensures consistent fruit yield in variable environmental conditions.
( Hu et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Duke University, USA
Improved seed oil content: increased levels of monounsaturated fatty acids and decreased levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
(Wang et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
National Research Council Canada, Canada
Nattokinase (NK) producing cucumber. NK is effective in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease.
( Ni et al., 2023 )
SDN2
CRISPR/Cas
Xuzhou University of Technology
Nankai University, China
High levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) in soybean seed oil. High MUFA content in vegetable oils can lead to significant health benefits and improve the oxidative stability, which are essential for both food usage and biodiesel (and other renewable resource) synthesis.
( Li et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northeast Agricultural University, China
Increased phosphorus and anthocyanin content.
( Zhang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shenyang Agricultural University
Ministry of Education, China
Improved kafirin digestibility, which increases the grain nutritional value.
( Elkonin et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Federal Centre of Agriculture Research of South-East Region
Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics – Subdivision of the Ufa Federal Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
Reduced content of trypsin inhibitors, one of the most abundant anti-nutritional factors in soybean seeds. Reduction of trypsin inhibitors leads to improved. digestibility of soybean meal.
( Wang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Virginia Tech, USA
Reduced grain chalkiness.
( Gann et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cell and Molecular Biology Program
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry
University of Arkansas at Little Rock, USA
Glossy green phenotype and reduced cuticular wax load.
( Liu et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Hunan Agricultural University
Tianjin Kernel Vegetable Research Institute, China
Reduced glucosinolate levels. Glucosinolates are anti-nutrients that can cause reduced performance and impairment of kidney and liver functions of livestock.
( Hölzl et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Bonn
Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK) Gatersleben, Germany
Enhanced levels of glucoraphanin. The hydrolysis product of glucoraphanin has powerful anticancer activity.
( Zheng et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Sichuan Agricultural University
Zhejiang University
Bijie Institute of Agricultural Science, China
Increased phosphorus content and improved fruit quality.
( Zhang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shenyang Agricultural University
Ministry of Education, China
Reduced levels of phytic acid (PA). PA has adverse effects on essential mineral absorption and thus is considered as an anti-nutritive for monogastric animals.
( Krishnan et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI)
Bharathidasan University, India
Amylose-free tubers.
( Abeuova et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Center for Biotechnology (NCB)
L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University
Nazarbayev University, Kazakhstan
Reduced levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, organic pollutants which have great ecological and health risks, in the edible parts.
( Chen et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University
Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, China
Improved fatty acid content: high oleic acid, decreased linoleic acid content to improve nutritional characteristics, increase shelf-life and frying stability.
(Zhang et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Jilin Agricultural University, China
Reduced content of anti-nutritional factors in soybean seeds, leading to improved digestibility.
( Figliano et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
UEL - Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Portugal
Enhanced fatty acid composition: high oleic acid content. High oleic sunflower is desirable because of health benefits and industrial use.
(Uslu et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Marmara University
Gebze Technical University, Turkey
Seeds low in glucosinolate content and other plant parts high in glucosinolate levels. Glucosinolates are anti-nutrients that can cause reduced performance and impairment of kidney and liver functions of livestock, they also play a role in plant defence.
( Mann et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Institute of Plant Genome Research
University of Delhi South Campus, India
Decreased cadmium accumulation in rice grain, while leaving important agronomic traits including yield, unaffected. Cadmium poses a health threat, as it is a highly toxic heavy metal for most living organisms
( Luo et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences
University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences
China National Rice Research Institute
Southern University of Science and Technology, China
Rice grain with a reduced amino acid and total protein content without affecting the agronomic traits of the plant. Additionally, the grain showed improved cooking and eating quality.
( Yang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Yangzhou University, China
Increased flavonoid content. Flavonoids play a role in fruit colour and are important for human health as favourable hydrophilic antioxidants.
( Zhou et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Highly specific detection of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in cereal samples. OTA is classified as a Class 2B carcinogens. The method can be flexibly customized to detect a wide range of small molecular targets and holds great promise as a versatile sensing kit with applications in various fields requiring sensitive and specific detection of diverse analytes.
( Chen et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ningbo University
Hainan University
Ningbo Clinical Pathology Diagnosis Center, China
University of New South Wales, Australia
Increased lysine content with recovered kernel hardness. Lysine is considered of great nutritional importance in animal feeds and human foods.
( Hurst et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Center for Plant Science Innovation
University of Missouri-Columbia, USA
Decreased storage-proteins, which allows improved forein protein production in seed.
( Ha et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Dong-A University
South Korea
Improved digestibility of kafirins, which increases the grain nutritional value.
( Elkonin et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Federal Centre of Agriculture Research of South-East Region
Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Russia
High amylose content. High-amylose starches are digested slowly which could provide increased satiety and reduced risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer.
( Kim et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Kyungpook National University
National Institute of Crop Science, South Korea
Reduced nicotine levels.
Nicotine is an addictive compound leading to severe diseases.
( Singh et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute
Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR)
Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CSIR-CIMAP), India
Reduced arsenic (As) accumulation in rice grain. Inorganic As is a carcinogen and decreasing the accumulation would improve the food safety of rice.
( Xu et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanjing Agricultural University, China
Increased potassium concentrations (K+). Potassium is crucial for improving the quality of tobacco.
( Gao et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Yunnan Academy of Tobacco Agricultural Sciences/National Tobacco Genetic Engineering
Research Center
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Slender grains in bold grain varieties.
( Shanthinie et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India
Reduced nicotine levels. Nicotine is the addictive component in tobacco.
( Jeong et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nulla Bio Inc.
Gyeongsang National University
Gyeongsang National University 501 Jinju-daero, South Korea
Zero amylose grain. Amylose levels significantly influence processing of grain.
( Li et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Qinghai University
Qinghai Academy of Agricultural and Forestry
Sciences
Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Improvement of of functional compounds in tomato fruit, which satisfies the antioxidant properties requirements.
( Kim et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hankyong National University
Chungbuk National University, South Korea
Increased iron content in potato plants. Iron is an essential micronutrient.
( Chauhan et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Panjab University
Panjab University
National Institute of Plant Genome Research, India
University of Minnesota, USA

Traits related to increased plant yield and growth

Increased fruit size. Highly branched inflorescence and formation of multiple flowers.
( Rodri­guez-Leal et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA
Semi-dwarf phenotype. High varieties are challenged by weak lodging and damages caused by storms, dwarf varieties are suitable for mechanized plant maintenance and fruit harvesting.
( Shao et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Hunan Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Sciences
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
University of Florida, USA
Increased shatter resistance to avoid seed loss during mechanical harvest.
( Braatz et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Germany
Increased seeds number per husk, higher seed weight.
( Yang et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Confer shoot architectural changes for increased resource inputs to increase crop yield.
( Stanic et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Calgary, Canada
SRM Institute of Technology, India
Improve plant architecture to increase yield. Plant height and branch number are directly correlated with yield.
( Zheng et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ministry of Agriculture, China
Wilkes University, USA
Semi-dwarf phenotype and compact architecture to increase yield. Plant height and branch angle are the major architectural factors determining yield.
( Fan et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, China
Wilkes University, USA
Improved root growth under high and low nitrogen conditions.
( Wang et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Anhui Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Only female flowers. Allows earlier production of hybrids, higher yield, and more concentrated fruit set.
( Hu et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,
China
High temperature germination. Large increases in the maximum temperature for seed germination to allow for the cultivation of the crop in production areas with higher temperature.
( Bertier et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of California, USA
Increased grain yield under field drought stress conditions and no yield loss under well-watered conditions.
( Shi et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
DuPont Pioneer, USA
Early flowering under long day conditions of higher latitudes to spread production of maize over a broad range of latitudes rapidly.
( Huang et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Wisconsin, USA
Improvement of yield by reducing the "easy to shatter" trait. Reduced seed shattering ensures better stability during the harvesting processes and improved yields.
( Sheng et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hunan Agricultural University
Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center
Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Increased yield under different environmental conditions: well-watered, drought, normal nitrogen and low nitrogen field conditions and at multiple geographical locations.
(Wang et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Sinobioway Bio-Agriculture Group Co.
Ltd
Corteva Agriscience
Johnston, USA
Improved rice photosynthetic efficiency and yield: increased light saturation points, stomatal conductance, light tolerance and photosynthetic yields.
(Ye et al., 2021)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
South China Agricultural University, China
Semi-dwarf phenotype to improve product and lodging resistance.
( Zhang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Control grain size and seed coat color.
( Tra et al., 2021 )

BE
International Rice Research Institute, Philippines
Dahlem Center of Plant Sciences Freie Universität, Germany
Synthetic Biology, Biofuel and Genome Editing R&
D Reliance Industries Ltd, India
Increased yield potential by nitrogen use efficiency. Nitrogen fertilizer has been applied broadly to increase yield. However, low nitrogen use efficiency causes environmental pollution and ecological deterioration by the nitrogen fertilizers.
( Zhang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Zhengzhou University, China
Improved grain yield by modulating pyruvate enzymes and cell cycle proteins, leading to increased grain size. The grain size is a major determinant for rice yield and a vital trait for domestication and breeding.
( Usman et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guangxi University
South China Agricultural University, China
Improved yield and fragrance.
( Usman et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guangxi University
South China Agricultural University, China
Early flowering and maturity. Flowering time (heading date) is an important trait for crop yield and cultivation.
( Wang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Sinobioway Bio-Agriculture Group, Co., China
Corteva™ Agriscience, USA
Improved high-density yield and drought/osmotic stress tolerance.
( Chen et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Texas Tech University, USA
Regulate shade avoidance. Soybean displays the classic shade avoidance syndrome (SAS), which leads to yield reduction and lodging under density farming conditions.
( Lyu et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Jilin Agricultural University
Shandong Agricultural University
Northeast Agricultural University, China
Increasing the number of seeds per pod (NSPP), an important yield determinant.
( Cai et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
South China Agricultural University, China
Control flowering time, an important determinant for soybean yield and adaptation.
( Li et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Guangzhou University
Agronomy College of Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University
Nanjing Agricultural University
Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Late flowering. Photoperiod sensitivity limits geographical range of cultivation.
( Cai et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Bushy phenotype and increased tiller production.
( Liu et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Iowa State University, USA
Improve biomass yield and salinity tolerance.
( Guan et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University
Shandong institute of agricultural sustainable development
Beijing Sure Academy of Biosciences, China
Oklahoma State University, USA
Improved plant architecture: increased shoot branching, reduced plant height, increased number of leaves and nodes and reduced total plant biomass.
(Gao et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Southwest University
Yunnan Academy of Tobacco Agricultural Sciences, China
Haploid induction to accelerate breeding in crop plants.
( Kelliher et al., 2017 )
SDN1
TALENs
Syngenta Seeds, USA
Enhancing grain-yield-related traits by increases in meristem size
( Liu et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cold Spring Harbor
University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA
Improved field performance: higher yield, producing on average 5.5 bushels per acre more. Waxy corn.
(Gao et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Corteva Agriscience, USA
Plant architecture: high tillering and reduced height.
(Butt et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia
Improved nitrogen use efficiency.
( Li et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
University of California, USA
Improvement of grain weight. Longer panicle.
( Xu et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China National Rice Research Institute, China
China Three Gorges University, China
Altered grain number per panicle and increased seed weight.
( Li et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Altered grain number per panicle.
( Shen et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Rice Research Institute, China
Increased seed weight.
( Hu et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Fudan University, China
Increased seed weight.
( Shen et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Yangzhou University, China
Increased seed weight.
( Ji et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Agronomy College of Henan Agricultural University, China
Genetic diversity.
( Shen et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Yangzhou University, China
Promote outgrowth buds and increase tiller number.
( Lu et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Wuhan Institute of Bioengineering
Huazhong Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Generating male sterility lines (MLS). Using MLS in hybrid seed production for monoclinous crops reduces costs and ensures high purity of the varieties because it does not produce pollen and has exserted stigmas. Complete abolition of pollen development.
( Lee et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Kyung Hee University, South Korea
Generating male sterility lines (MLS). Using MLS in hybrid seed production for monoclinous crops reduces costs and ensures high purity of the varieties because it does not produce pollen and has exserted stigmas.
( Li et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Generating male sterility lines (MLS). Using MLS in hybrid seed production for monoclinous crops reduces costs and ensures high purity of the varieties because it does not produce pollen and has exserted stigmas.
( Xie et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
South China Agricultural University, China
Regulation of pollen tube growth. The tube grows in female reproductive tissues to transport two sperm cells into the embryo sac for double fertilization during sexual reproduction.
( Liu et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Increased grain number per main panicle and an increased seed settling rate.
( Qian et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Grain yield, regulation of seed development.
( Yuan et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanjing Agricultural University, China
Generation of important yield-related trait characteristics: dense and erect panicles and reduced plant height.
(Wang et al., 2017)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Syngenta Biotechnology, China
Regulating fruit ripening, one of the most important concerns in the study of fleshy fruit species.
( Ito et al., 2015 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Food Research Institute, Japan
Bigger seedlings.
( Lor et al., 2014 )
SDN1
TALENs
University of Minnesota, USA
Early flowering. Day-light sensitivity limited the geographical range of cultivation.
( Soyk et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, USA
Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Germany
Université Paris-Scalay, France
Promote growth of axillary buds. Lateral branches develop from the axillary buds. The number of side branches is very important to plant architecture, which influences the yield and quality of the plant.
( Li et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guizhou University
Northwest A&
F University
Shandong Agricultural University
Northeast Agricultural University
Shanxi University, China
Oxford University
University of Bedfordshire, UK
Control meristem size to increase fruit yield.
( Yuste-Lisbona et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Universidad de Almería
Universitat Politècnica de València–Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas
Spain
Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research
Thünen Institute of Forest Genetics, Germany
Université Paris-Saclay, France
Altered spike architecture and grain treshability to increase grain production.
( Liu et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Longer grains and increased glume cell length.
( Sheng et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Bigger grains, increased grain weight.
( Zhang et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Faster seedling growth.
( Zhou et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Maryland, USA
Reduced seed dormancy: rapid and uniform germination of seeds is important for rice production. Mutant seeds began to germinate 1 day after sowing, while WT seeds needed 2 days.
(Jung et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hankyong National University
Chungbuk National University
Hanyang University, China
Central Luzon State University, Philippines
Plants with longer primary roots and more crown roots, as well as increased sensitivity to auxins and cytokinins. The rice root system is important for growth.
( Mao et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Fudan University
Sichuan Agricultural University
Shanghai Normal University
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Plant development. Phenotypes consistent with increased GA response: tall and slender with light green vegetation.
(Lor et al., 2014)
SDN1
TALENs
University of Minnesota, USA
Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
Increased spine density. The “numerous spines (ns)” cucumber varieties are popular in Europe and West Asia.
( Liu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Enhanced rice grain yield by decoupling panicle number and size
( Song et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Shandong Agricultural University
Hainan Yazhou Bay Seed Laboratory, China
Regulated inflorescence and flower development. More flowers and more fruit produced upon vibration-assisted fertilization.
( Hu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Université de Toulouse, France
Chongqing University, China
Enhanced photosynthesis and increases seed yield.
( Hu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanjing Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Henan Institute of Science and Technology, China
Increase in floral organ number or fruit size, conferring enhanced tomato fruit yield.
( Rodriguez-Leal et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA
Helical and vine-like growth. Helical growth is an economical way for plant to obtain resources.
( Yang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Semi-dwarf phenotype. Plant height is an important agronomic trait of rice, it directly affects the yield potential and lodging resistance.
( Han et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guangxi University
South China Agricultural University
Guangxi University, China
Semi-dwarf phenotype with desired agronomic traits: tolerance to low phosporus levels and broad-spectrum resistance to diseases and insects.
(Hu et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China National Rice Research Institute, China
Range of beneficial phenotypes: additional tillers and smaller culms and panicles.
(Cui et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China National Rice Research Institute
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Yangzhou University, Nagoya University, Japan
Positive regulation for grain dormancy. Lack of grain dormancy in cereal crops causes losses in yield and quality because of preharvest sprouting.
( Lawrenson et al., 2015 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Norwich Research Park, UK
Murdoch University, Australia
Combine agronomically desirable traits with useful traits present in wild lines. Threefold increase in fruit size and a tenfold increase in fruit number. Fruit lycopene accumulation is improved by 500% compared with the widely cultivated S. lycopersicum.
( Zsögön et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Universidade Federal de Viçosa
Universidade de São Paulo Paulo, Brazil
University of Minnesota, USA
Universität Münster, Germany
Customize tomato cultivars for urban agriculture: increased compactness and decreased growth cycle of tomato plants.
(Kwon et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Cornell University
University of Florida, USA
Wonkwang University, South Korea
Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel
Compact architecture with a smaller petiole angle than wild-type plants.
( Zhang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
Beijing Vocational College of Agriculture
Xiamen University, China
Optimum increase in phloem-transportation capacity leads to improved sink strength in tomato to increase agricultural crop production.
( Nam et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Pohang University of Science and Technology
Wonkwang University, South Korea
Increased seed number per silique, which increases the mustard yield per plant.
( Wang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Increased grain yield without side effect.
( Gho et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Kyung Hee University, South Korea
International Rice Research Institute, Philippines
Increased plant yield due to architectural changes. Leaf inclination: maize plants with upright leaves can be planted at higher densities without shading.
(Brekke et al., 2011)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Iowa State University, USA
Increased bending strength. Stalk lodging, which is generally determined by stalk strength, results in considerable yield loss and has become a primary threat to maize yield under high-density planting.
( Zhang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Iowa State University, USA
Increased density by early-flowering phenotype under long-day conditions.
( Li et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shandong Agricultural University
South China Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, China
Semi-dwarf phenotype with increased lodging resistance.
( Zhang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Altered plant architecture to inrease yield: increased node number on the main stem and branch number.
(Bao et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Duy Tan University, Vietnam
RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, Japan
Increased nodule numbers. Soybean is a globally important crop for oil production and protein for human diet.
( Bai et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
Nanchang University, China
Early-flowering varieties. The timing of flowering is an important event in the life cycle of flowering plants.
( Jiang et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hunan Agricultural University, China
Université de Strasbourg, France
Improved rice grain shape and appearance quality. Potential application in breeding of rice varieties with optimized grain morphologies. Slender grain shape.
( Zhao et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Yangzhou University, China
Increased yield.
( Zhou et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
Xichang University, China
University of Maryland, USA
Promoted rice growth and productivity.
( Miao et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Purdue University, USA
Increased yield.
( Huang et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Yunnan University
Chinese Academy of Sciences
BGI-Baoshan, China
Improvement for larger kernel and yield.
( Ma et al., 2015 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northwest A &
F University
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Increased grain size and modulated shoot architecture.
( Miao et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang A&
F University
Nanchang University
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Purdue University, USA
Dwarf phenotype. Tomatoes with compact growth habits and reduced plant height can be useful in some environments.
( Tomlinson et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Norwich Research Park, UK
University of Minnesota, USA
Dwarf and high tillering phenotypes.
( Yang et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shenzhen University
The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China
Increased spikelet number and delayed heading date. Two traits that are crucial and correlated to yield in wheat.
( Chen et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Induced erect leaf habit and shoot growth for a more efficient light penetration into lower canopy layers.
( Fladung et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Thünen Institute of Forest Genetics, Germany
Dwarf stature and a lesion-mimic phenotype. Fungal resistance: enhanced resistance to the pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Increased content of salicylic acid and induced plant defense responses.
(Ma et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Peking University
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Improved grain yield by promoting outgrowth buds and increasing tiller number.
( Lu et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Wuhan Institute of Bioengineering
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Increased yield potential trough improved nitrogen use efficiency. Enhanced tolerance to N starvation, and showed delayed senescence and increased grain yield in field conditions. Lowered use of N fertilizer.
( Zhang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Zhengzhou University, China
Dwarf phenotype.
( Lawrenson et al., 2015 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Norwich Research Park, UK
Murdoch University, USA
Rapid improvement of domestication traits and genes that control plant architecture, flower production and fruit size. Major productivity traits are improved in an orphan crop.
( Lemmon et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cold Spring Harbor
The Boyce Thompson Institute
Cornell University, USA
Dwarf phenotype to improve crop yield: lodging-resistant, compact, and perform well under high-density planting.
(Sun et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shenyang Agricultural University
National &
Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Northern Horticultural Facilities Design &
Application Technology
College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, China
Increase in plant height, tiller number, grain protein content and yield. 1.5- to 2.8-fold increase in total chlorophyll content in the flag leaf at the grain filling stage. Delayed senescence by 10–14 days. High nitrogen content in shoots under low nitrogen conditions.
( Karunarathne et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Murdoch University
Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Australia
Increased tassel branch number (TBN), one of the important agronomic traits that contribute to the efficiency of seed production.
( Guan et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Overexpression causes strongly promoted stem elongation, lower expression resulted in dwarf phenotype.
( Mu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Improved grain length and weight by promoting cell proliferation in spikelet hull
( Wu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chongqing University, China
Increased grain weight and grain size. Carbohydrate and total protein levels also increased.
( Guo et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Sichuan Agricultural University, China
University of California, USA
Altering leaf inclination angle which has the potential to elevate yield in high-density plantings.
( Brant et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Florida
DOE Center for Advanced Bioenergy and Bioproducts Innovation, USA
Kastamonu University, Turkey
Improved grain quality without severe yield penalty under nitrogen reduction conditions.
( He et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Rice Research Institute of Shenyang Agricultural University
Tianjin Tianlong Science and Technology Co. LTD.
National Japanica Rice Research and Development Center, China
Enhanced sink strength in tomato, improving fruit setting, and yield contents.
( Nam et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Pohang University of Science and Technology
Wonkwang University, South Korea
Enhanced performance of soybean under dense conditions.
( Ji et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Southern University of Science and Technology, China
Enhanced photosynthesis and decreased leaf angles for improved plant architecture and high yields.
( An et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Increased leaf yield of lettuce by delaying the onset of flowering.
( Choi et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology
Korea University of Science and Technology, South Korea
Regulated sepal growth
( Xing et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Zhejiang University, China
University of Nottingham, UK
Production of enlarged, dome-shaped leaves. Enlarged fruits with increased pericarp thickness due to cell expansion.
( Swinnen et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ghent University
Center for Plant Systems Biology, Vives, Belgium
Université de Bordeaux, France
Improved rice yield and immunity.
( Li et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China

Higher yield than wild-type (WT) plants due to increased grain number per panicle, elevated grain weight, and enhanced harvest index.
( Wei et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Shanghai Normal University, China
Improved grain length and weight by promoting cell proliferation.
( Wu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chongqing University, China
Promoting nodulation: up-regulation of expression levels of genes involved in nodulation. Nitrogen-fixing symbiotic nodules strongly up regulate yield.
(Wang et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Beijing Institute of Technology
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Root growth angle regulation, among the most important determinants of root system architecture. Root growth angle controls water uptake capacity, stress resilience, nutrient use efficiency and thus yield of crop plants.
( Kirschner et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Bonn
University of Cologne
Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research Gatersleben
Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Germany
University of Bologna, Italy

Increased water use efficiency without growth reductions in well-watered conditions.
( Blankenagel et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Technical University of Munich
Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology
German Research Center for Environmental Health
KWS SAAT SE &
Co.KGaA
Université Technique de Munich
Heinrich Heine University, Germany
LEPSE - Écophysiologie des Plantes sous Stress environnementaux, France
Early flowering. Certain mutants also showed following phenotypes: determinate flowering, shorter stature and/or basal branching.
(Bellec et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Université Paris-Saclay, France
Significantly improved photosynthesis and decreased leaf angles. The plant architecture is ideal for dense planting.
( An et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Altered tree architecture, exhibited pleiotropic phenotypes: including differences in branch angle and stem growth.
(Dutt et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Florida, USA
Mansoura University, Egypt
Increased seed oil content (SOC). SOC is a major determinant of yield and quality.
( Karunarathna et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Germany
Zhejiang University, China
Increased rice grain size and yield.
( Wang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China National Seed Group Co. Ltd., China
More flowers in both determinate and indeterminate cultivars and more produced fruit.
( Hu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Université de Toulouse
Université Bordeaux, France
Chongqing University, China
Transformation of a climbing woody perennial, developing axillary inflorescences after many years of juvenility, into a compact plant with rapid terminal flower and fruit development.
( Varkonyi-Gasic et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
The New Zealand Institute for Plant &
Food Research Limited (Plant &
Food Research), University of Auckland, New Zealand
Conferred lodging resistance. Tef is a staple food, and valuable cash crop in Ethiopia. Lodging is a major limitation to its production.
( Beyene et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Donald Danforth Plant Science Center
Corteva Agriscience
Michigan State University, USA
Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Ethiopia
Larger fruits with more locules and larger shoot apical meristem.
( Song et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
South China Agricultural University, China
University of Toulouse, France
Increased yield: plants produced more tillers and grains than azygous wild-type controls and the total yield was increased up to 15 per cent.
(Holubova et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Palacký University
Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Czech Republic
Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK) Gatersleben, Germany
Increased pollen activity, subsequently inducing fruit setting.
( Wu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
South China Agricultural University
Chongqing University, China
Université de Toulouse, France
Increased water use efficiency, a promising approach for achieving sustainable crop production in changing climate scenarios.
( Blankenagel et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Technical University of Munich
Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology
Helmholtz Center Munich
Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany
Improves complex traits such as yield and drought tolerance.
( Lorenzo et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Center for Plant Systems Biology
Ghent University
Flanders Research Institute for Agriculture Fisheries and Food (ILVO), Belgium
Increased total kernel number or kernel weight.
( Kelliher et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Research Triangle Park
University of Georgia, USA
Syngenta Crop Protection, The Netherlands
Improved pod shattering resistance. Pod shattering has been a negatively selected trait in soybean domestication and breeding as it can lead to devastating yield loss of soybean.
( Zhang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University
Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, China
Altered spike architecture.
( de Souza Moraes et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Wageningen University and Research, The Netherlands
Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil
Norwich Research Park, UK
Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, Germany
Reduction of soybean plant height and shortening of the internodes. The height of the soybean plant is a key trait that significantly impacts the yield.
( Cheng et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guangzhou University
Chinese Academy of Sciences
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Reduced seed shattering. Seed shattering is one of the main constraints on grain production in African cultivated rice, which causes severe grain losses during harvest.
( Ning et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Africa Rice Center, Benin
Increased grain size and chalkiness.
( Li et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Henan Agricultural University, China
Shortened plant architecture and jointless pedicel without affecting the yield. This plant architecture can allow ground cultivation systems that do not require the support of stakes and ties and could be ultimately suitable for once-over mechanical harvesting.
( Lee et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Florida, USA
Elongated, occasionally peanut-like shaped fruit.
( Zheng et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nagoya University
Kanazawa University, Japan
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Increased grain size.
( Chen et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China National Rice Research Institute
Huazhong Agricultural University
Nanchong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Increased grain number due to increased meristem activity and enhanced panicle branching.
( Li et al., 2013 )
SDN1
ZFN
Chinese Academy of Sciences
National Hybrid Rice Research and Development Center
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
China National Hybrid Rice Research and Development Center
Wuhan University, China
Delayed heading date, increased yield and reduced chalkiness under field high temperature stress.
( Li et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University
Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences

Hubei Hongshan Laboratory, China
Semi-dwarf phenotype to improve lodging resistance and increased seed dormancy. Increased seed dormancy can be beneficial for use in the malting industry.
( Cheng et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Tasmania
Murdoch University
Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development, Australia
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
OsGEF5 and OsGDI1 single mutants show significantly reduced height and longer and thinner grains.
( Shad et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University
Hubei Hongshan Laboratory, China
Increased grain yield under phosphorus-deficient conditions.
( Ishizaki et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Japan
Early flowering time. Flowering time (heading date) is an important trait for crop yield and cultivation.
( Yin et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shenyang Agricultural University, China
Control flowering time, an important determinant for soybean yield and adaptation.
( Wang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guangzhou University
Yunnan Agricultural University
Nanjing Agricultural University
Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Breeding of Hebei, China
Increase in 1000-grain weight, grain area, grain width, grain length, plant height, and spikelets per spike.
( Errum et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC)
PARC Institute of Advanced Studies in Agriculture (PIASA)
Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Pakistan
Altered plant architecture to increase yield: more compact plant architecture.
(Kong et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanjing Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, China
Increased formation of adventitious roots (ARs). The formation of ARs is extremely important to the large-scale vegetative propagation of elite genotypes in many economically important woody species.
( Ran et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanjing Forestry University
Yangzhou University, China
Accelerated seedling growth. Because seedling growth and development are the basis of rice tillering and reproduction, rapid seedling growth and fast sprouting from the soil are vital for the emergence rate and yield.
( Teng et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hangzhou Normal University
Inner Mongolia University
Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Longer root hairs. Root hairs effectively enlarge the soil-root contact area and play essential roles for nutrient and water absorption.
( Yang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University
Linyi University
Hunan Agricultural University, China
Improved yield under short day conditions.
( Wang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
South China Agricultural University, China
Increased nitrogen utilization efficiency under high nitrate concentrations.
( Hang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guizhou University
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Botany
Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Delay in the appearance of flower buds and increased yield.
( Beracochea et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas Y Técnicas (CONICET)
Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), Argentina
Delayed bolting.
( Shin et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Kyung Hee University, South Korea
Delayed bolting.
( Shin et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Kyung Hee University, South Korea
Increased stomatal density, stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate. Fine tuning the stomatal traits can enhance climate resilience in crops.
( Rathnasamy et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
Sugarcane Breeding Institute, India
Various phenotypic changes were observed of which traits such as plant dwarfing, color, shape, and weight, early flowering, a high number of flowers and early fruit set and maturation, fewer seeds, and reduced and delayed browning of fruits are agronomically important.
( Kodackattumannil et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
United Arab Emirates University, United Arab Emirates
Enhanced photosynthesis.
( Caddell et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service (USDA ARS)
University of California at Berkeley
Utah State University
Texas A&
M University, USA
Increases size of starch granules. Granule size is a key parameter for industrial processing. Larger granules may increase yield during processing and it has been shown in sweet potato that smaller starch granules degrade faster than large granules, so larger granule tubers may be beneficial for storage.
( Pfotenhauer et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Tennessee, USA
Altered plant architecture along with a shorter plant height, grain size and increased spikelets and grain density.
( Zhang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shanghai Agrobiological Gene Center, China
Early bolting and flowering.
( Wang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
South China Agricultural University, China
Increased tiller number and grain yield.
( Cui et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
The University of Tokyo
Kyoto University
National Institute of Crop Science, Japan
Leaf inclination: the leaf angle is a trait that contributes to crop yield determination.
(Trionfini et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Argentina
Increased breaking force, leading to improved lodging resistance.
( Dang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shenyang Agricultural University/Key Laboratory of Northern geng Super Rice Breeding, China
Super-dwarf phenotype. Rice plants with compact growth habits and reduced plant height can be useful in some environments.
( Peng et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hunan Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Agricultural College of Yangzhou University
Tianjin Academy of Agriculture Sciences, China
Improved lodging resistance in later growth stages due to shorter plant height with enhanced resistance to rice blast.
( Gang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huaiyin Institute of Agricultural Science/Huai'
an Key Laboratory of Agricultural Biotechnology
Huaiyin Normal University
China National Rice Research Institute, China
Reduction of plant height through accumulation of ceramides. Plant height is an important agronomic trait of rice, it directly affects the yield potential and lodging resistance.
( Wang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanchang University
Henan Agricultural University, China
Hokkaido University, Japan
Dwarf phenotype. Tomatoes with compact growth habits and reduced plant height can be useful in some environments.
( Ao et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chongqing University, China
Early heading. Heading date is an important agronomic trait that affects climatic adaptation and yield potential.
( Fan et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Henan Agricultural University, China
Increased shoot branching. The number of side branches is very important to plant architecture, which influences the yield and quality of the plant.
( Chen et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of China, China
Enhanced grain yield and semi-dwarf phenotype by manipulating brassinosteroid signal pathway.
( Song et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Hard Winter Wheat Genetics Research Unit, USA
Enlarged leaf and petal sizes resulting in bigger flowers. The size of a floral organ is one of the ornamental traits of strawberry.
( Zhao et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shandong Agricultural University, China
Decreased spike rachis node number and increased grain size and weight.
( Fan et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Hainan Yazhou Bay Seed Laboratory
Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences
China Agricultural University
Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Dwarf phenotype to increase yield.
( Zhou et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanchang University
Jiangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Enlarged grain phenotype.
( Wang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hebi Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Henan Agricultural University, China
Improved nitrogen use efficiency, growth and yield in low nitrogen environment.
( Liu et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
The University of Tokyo, Japan
Shorter flowering time and increased yield.
( Cheng et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Jilin Normal University
Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Early heading phenotype that escapes from cold stress and achieves high yield potential.
( Zhou et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanjing Agricultural University
Institute of Lianyungang Agricultural Science of Xuhuai Area/Lianyungang Institute of Agricultural Sciences
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Delayed heading date with improved yield-related traits e.g. height, tiller number and grain weight.
( Li et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
South China Agricultural University
Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan
Modern Agriculture, China
More and longer lateral roots, more xylem and increased development of secondary vascular tissues: plants more suitable for biofuel and bioenergy production.
(An et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang A &
F University, China
Early flowering phenotype with no adverse effect on yield.
( Shang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University
Hubei Hongshan Laboratory
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
University of Nottingham, UK
Altered root architecture with increased tillers and total grain weight.
( Rahim et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Quaid-e-Azam University
National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC)
The University of Haripur, Pakistan
King Saud University, Saudi Arabia
Nile University
Ain Shams University, Egypt
Chonnam National University, South Korea
Altered branch and petiole angles.
( Kangben et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Clemson University
HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Cotton incorporated, USA
Improved spikelet number per panicle led to increased grain yield per plant.
( Ludwig et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines
University of Pavia, Italy
Delayed onset of ripening.
( Nizampatnam et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Hyderabad
SRM University-AP, India
Butterhead plant architecture.
( Xie et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University
Wuhan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Increased plant height, longer roots, smaller root growth angle and increased tuber weight.
( Zhao et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Yunnan Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Xuanhan County Plant Quarantine Station
Yuguopu District Agricultural Comprehensive Service Center
Ning'
er County Plant Protection and Plant Quarantine Station, China
Delayed flowering, which can increase grain yield and quality.
( Zhou et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northeast Forestry University
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Beidahuang Group Erdaohe Farm CO., China
Increased grain yield and quality.
( Luo et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guizhou University, China
King Saud University, Saudi Arabia
Shortened flowering time and maturity, determining their favourable latitudinal zone for cultivation.
( Gao et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Syngenta Seed Technology China Co., China
Bigger seeds and increased yield.
( Xie et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Anhui Agricultural University
Anhui Agricultural University
Bellagen Biotechnology Co. Ltd
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs
Southern University of Science and Technology
Hainan Yazhou Bay Seed Laboratory, China
Dwarf phenotype, which can aid in obtaining more compact, densely planted soybean varieties to boost productivity.
( Xiang et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Wuhan Polytechnic University
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Increased grain yield when grown at low latitudes.
( Song et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Zhejiang A&
F University, China
Improved lodging resistance and biomass saccharification.
( Wang et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CIRSPR/Cas
Shenyang Agricultural University, China
Significantly higher potassium accumulation. Potassium ions are essential nutrients for growth and development of tobacco.
( Gao et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Yunnan Academy of Tobacco Agricultural Sciences/National Tobacco Genetic Engineering Research Center
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Enhanced tillering and yield.
( Jin et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guizhou University, China
Increased seed size and yields without alterations in plant architecture or seed nutrition.
( Wang et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northeast Forestry University
Northeast Agricultural University, China
Late flowering phenotype.
( Liu et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Increased plant height with an earlier heading date.
( Fu et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Henan Normal University
Sichuan Agricultural University
Henan Agricultural University
Shanxi University, China
Longer rice grains with reduces plant height.
( Xu et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Rice Research Institute of Shenyang Agricultural University
Shenyang Agricultural University, China

Traits related to industrial utilization

Cytoplasmic male sterility.
( Chang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Generating male sterility lines (MLS). Using MLS in hybrid seed production for monoclinous crops reduces costs and ensures high purity of the varieties because it does not produce pollen and has exserted stigmas.
( Fang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Science and Technology Beijing
Beijing Solidwill Sci-Tech Co. Ltd., China
Early heading: in regions with short growing seasons, early maturing varieties to escape frost damage are required.
(Sohail et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China National Rice Research Institute
Northern Center of China National Rice Research Institute
Zhejiang A&
F University, China
Mir Chakar Khan Rind University
Agriculture Research System Khyber, Pakistan
Ministry of Agriculture, Bangladesh
Agriculture Research Center, Egypt
Early heading: timing of heading is crucial for the reproduction and the geographical expansion of cultivation of rice.
(Sun et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China National Rice Research Institute
Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Northern Center of China National Rice Research Institute
Xuzhou Institute of Agricultural Sciences, China
Generating male sterility lines (MLS). Using MLS in hybrid seed production for monoclinous crops reduces costs and ensures high purity of the varieties because it does not produce pollen and has exserted stigmas.
( Niu et al., 2022 )

CRISPR/Cas
Sichuan Agricultural University
Chengdu Agricultural College
Sichuan Institute of Atomic Energy, China
Rubber biosynthesis. To accelerate the domestication of Taraxacum kok-saghyz (TK), a plant notable for its ability to produce high molecular weight rubber in its roots and which might be an alternative source of natural rubber.
( Iaffaldano et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, USA
Enhanced haploid induction. Double haploid breeding based on in vivo haploid induction has been extensively used in maize breeding. The production of haploids depends on haploid inducers.
( Zhong et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Enabled clonal reproduction trough seeds. Application of the method may enable self-propagation of a broad range of elite F1 hybrid crops.
( Wang et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Université Paris-Saclay, France
Establishment of maternal haploid induction. Doubled haploid technology is used to obtain homozygous lines in a single generation. This technique significantly accelerates the crop breeding trajectory.
( Zhong et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Wageningen University and Research, The Netherlands
Establishment of maternal haploid induction. Doubled haploid technology is used to obtain homozygous lines in a single generation. This technique significantly accelerates the crop breeding trajectory.
( Zhong et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Wageningen University and Research, The Netherlands
Late flowering time.
( Li et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University
China Zhejiang Zhengjingyuan Pharmacy Chain Co., Ltd. &
Hangzhou Zhengcaiyuan Pharmaceutical Co., China
Haploid induction.
( Li et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University
Longping Agriculture Science Co. Ltd., China
Accelerated abscission. Plant organ abscission is a process important for development and reproductive success,
( Liu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shenyang Agricultural University
Key Laboratory of Protected Horticulture of Ministry of Education, China
University of California at Davis
Crops Pathology and Genetic Research Unit, USA
35% reduction in lignin. Fourfold increase in cellulose-to-glucose conversion upon limited saccharification. Efficient saccharification is hindered by the presence of lignin in the secondary-thickened cell walls.
( de Vries et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ghent University
VIB Center for Plant Systems Biology, Belgium
Reduced lignin content and increased sugar release upon saccharification.
( De Meester et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ghent University
VIB Center for Plant Systems Biology, Belgium
Male sterility: mutants did not produce pollen and induced a parthenocarpic fruit set.
(Gökdemir et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ondokuz Mayıs University
Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Turkey
Improved saccharification efficiency by an altered cell wall architecture.
( Nayeri et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shahid Beheshti University
University of Tabriz, Iran
Enhanced biological nitrogen fixation to reduce the use of inorganic nitrogen fertilizers. Enhanced biofilm formation of soil diazotrophic bacteria by modified root microbiome structure.
( Yan et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of California
Bayer Crop Science, USA
Male sterility.
( Zhang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northwest A&
F University, China
Enhanced genetic recombination frequency to increase genetic diversity and disrupting genetic interference.
( Liu et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China National Rice Research Institute
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Significantly longer seed dormancy period, may result in reduced pre-harvest sprouting of grains on spikes.
( Abe et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Institute of Crop Science
Okayama University
Yokohama City University
Institute of Agrobiological Sciences
Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Japan
Thermosensitive genic male sterile lines with high blast resistance and fragrance quality. Resources for hybrid rice breeding.
( Liang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China National Rice Research Institute, China
Parthenocarpy: seedless tomatoes
(Nieves-Cordones et al., 2020)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura-CSIC, Spain
Tailoring poplar lignin without yield penalty. Reduced recalcitrance.
( De Meester et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ghent University
VIB Center for Plant Systems Biology
VIB Metabolomics Core, Belgium
Guidance for creating male-sterile lines to facilitate hybrid cotton production. Exploit heterosis for improvement of cotton.
( Ma et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University
Huanggang Normal University
Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Institute of Cotton Research of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Regulation of flowering time and drought tolerance: flowered 9.6 and 5.8 days earlier.
(Gu et al., 2022)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Yangzhou University, China
Bioethanol production: Improved saccharification efficiency without compromising biomass yield.
(Kannan et al., 2017)
SDN1
TALENs
University of Florida
Novozymes North America Inc, USA
Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), South Korea
New red-grained and pre-harvest sprouting (PHS)-resistant wheat varieties with elite agronomic traits. PHS reduces yield and grain quality, additionally the red pigment of the grain coat contains proanthocyanidins, which have antioxidant activity and thus health-promoting properties.
( Zhu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Henan University
Shenzhen Research Institute of Henan university
Taiyuan University of Technology
Southern University of Science and Technology, China
University of Edinburgh, UK
Generating male sterility lines (MLS). Using MLS in hybrid seed production reduces costs and ensures high purity of the varieties because it does not produce pollen and has exserted stigmas.
( Zhang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Key Laboratory of Wheat Biology and Genetic Improvement on North Yellow and Huai River Valley
National Engineering Laboratory for Wheat and Maize
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Generating male sterility lines (MLS). Using MLS in hybrid seed production reduces costs and ensures high purity of the varieties because it does not produce pollen and has exserted stigmas.
( Bao et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Yunnan Agricultural University
Yunnan Academy of Agriculture Sciences, China
Generating male sterility lines (MLS) and enhanced tolerance against drought stress. Using MLS in hybrid seed production reduces costs and ensures high purity of the varieties because it does not produce pollen and has exserted stigmas.
( Secgin et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ondokuz Mayıs University
Burdur Mehmet Akif Ersoy University
Ondokuz Mayıs University, Turkey
Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Egypt
Accumulate low levels of alkaloids. Nicotine is the most abundant alkaloid produced in tobacco plants. Switching to cigarettes containing levels of nicotine below the level of sustaining an addiction response will smoke less and/or find it easier to quit. Possibly, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) may mandate such reductions in future cigarette products.
( Smith et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
North Carolina State University, USA
Wine fermentation: minimize ethyl carbamate (EC) accumulation. EC is a potential carcinogen to humans. EC is mainly produced through the reaction between urea and ethanol during the Chinese wine brewing process.
(Wu et al., 2020)
SDN2
CRISPR/Cas
Jiangnan University
Zhejiang Shuren University, China
Generation of male sterility lines. Heterosis, the breeding result in which heterozygous hybrid progeny are superior to both homozygous parents, depends on the selection and application of male-sterile lines (MSL). Using MSL can reduce the production cost of hybrid seeds and improve its quality.
( Chen et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Jilin Agricultural University
Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Control photoperiodic flowering to allow adaptation of cultivars. Flowering time is a critical characteristic to determine the geographic distribution and regional adaptability of soybean.
( Wang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Male sterility. Important genetic resources for commercial hybrid seed production.
( Zhang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,
Generating male sterility lines (MSL). MS is the absence or non-function of pollen grain in plant or incapability of plants to produce or release functional pollen grains. Using MS lines eliminates the process of mechanical emasculation in hybrid seed production.
( Zou et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Sichuan Agricultural University, China
Induction of haploid plants for the development of good inbred lines for efficient and fast breeding.
( Liu et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Early-flowering.
( Jeong et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Department of Biological Science
Seoul National University
Chungnam National University
Institute for Basic Science
Kangwon National University
Kyunghee University, South Korea
Generation of male sterile (MS) lines. MS is a useful tool to harness hybrid vigor for hybrid seed production.
( Chen et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
China Agricultural University, China
Rapid generation of male sterile (MS) bread wheat. MS is an important tool in creating hybrid crop varieties that provide a yield advantage over traditional varieties by harnessing heterosis.
( Singh et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
DuPont Pioneer, USA
Jointless tomatoes. Pedicel abscission is an important agronomic factor that controls yield and post-harvest fruit quality. In tomato, floral stems that remain attached to harvested fruits during picking mechanically damage the fruits during transportation, decreasing the fruit quality for fresh-market tomatoes and the pulp quality for processing tomatoes.
( Roldan et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Institute of Plant Sciences Paris-Saclay (IPS2), France
University of Liège, Belgium
Gynoecious phenotype: only female flowers. Advantageous trait for production of hybrid seed by bees under spatial isolation, because it avoids hand emasculation and hand pollination.
(Zhang et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Beijing Key Laboratory of Vegetable Germplasm Improvement
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering Planning and Design, China
Albino phenotype, self-incompatibility and male sterility.
( Ma et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Southwest University, China
Rescued male fertility. Hybrids between divergent populations commonly show hybrid sterility; this reproductive barrier hinders hybrid breeding of the japonica and indica rice subspecies.
( Shen et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources
Key Laboratory of Plant Functional Genomics and Biotechnology of Guangdong Provincial Higher Education Institutions
South China Agricultural University, China
Manipulation of self-incompatibility.
( Zhang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Aarhus University
DLF Seeds A/S, Denmark
Early maturity of rice varieties. Rice is a tropical short-day plant. The northward cultivation in China is accompanied with daylength extension and temperature decrease, which are unfavorable for rice, to complete flowering and seed setting.
( Li et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Restoring cytoplasmic sterility.
( Kazama et al., 2019 )
SDN2
TALENs
Tohoku University
Tamagawa University
The University of Tokyo
National Institute of Genetics
Tokyo Institute of Technology
Tamagawa University
Japan Science and Technology Agency, Japan
Delayed flowering time.
( Hong et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, South Korea
Conversion of hulled into naked barley.
( Gasparis et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Research Institute
Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), Poland
Glycoproteins without plant-specific glycans. Plants or plant cells can be used to produce pharmacological glycoproteins, for example antibodies or vaccines. However these proteins carry N-glycans with plant-typical residues [β(1,2)-xylose and core α(1,3)-fucose]. This plant-specific glycans can greatly impact the immunogenicity, allergenicity, or activity of the protein.
( Mercx et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Université catholique de Louvain
Université de Liège, Belgium
Manipulation of flowering time to develop cultivars with desired maturity dates. Stabilization of flowering time and period supports efficient mechanised harvesting.
( Ahmar et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Generating male sterility lines (MLS). Using MLS in hybrid seed production for monoclinous crops reduces costs and ensures high purity of the varieties because it does not produce pollen and has exserted stigmas.
( Svitashev et al., 2015 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
DuPont Pioneer, USA
Generating male sterility lines (MLS). Using MLS in hybrid seed production for monoclinous crops reduces costs and ensures high purity of the varieties because it does not produce pollen and has exserted stigmas.
( Xie et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Science and Technology
Beijing, China
Beijing Solidwill Sci-Tech Co. Ltd, China
Generating male sterility lines (MLS). Using MLS in hybrid seed production for monoclinous crops reduces costs and ensures high purity of the varieties because it does not produce pollen and has exserted stigmas.
( Li et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Generating male sterility lines (MLS). Using MLS in hybrid seed production reduces costs and ensures high purity of the varieties because it does not produce pollen and has exserted stigmas.
( Li et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Peking University Institute of Advanced Agricultural Sciences
Peking University
Beijing Key Laboratory of Plant Gene Resources and Biotechnology for Carbon Reduction and Environmental Improvement, China
Bio-fuel production: Reduced lignin content, improves cell wall composition for production of bio-ethanol.
(Jung et al., 2016)
SDN1
TALENs
Korea University, South Korea
University of Florida, USA
Bio-fuel production: Reduced lignin content and improved sugar release.
(Park et al., 2017)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Noble Research Institute, USA
Reduced lignin content and S (syringyl lignin)/G (guaiacyl lignin) (S/G) ratio alteration to reduce cell wall recalcitrance and improve bioethanol production. Lignin is a major component of secondary cell walls and contributes to the recalcitrance problem during fermentation.
( Park et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation
BioEnergy Science Center
University of Tennessee, USA
Nicotine-free tobacco.
( Schachtsiek et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
TU Dortmund University, Germany
Hairy root transformation. Hairy roots play a role in multiple processes, ranging from recombinant protein production and metabolic engineering to analyses of rhizosphere physiology and biochemistry.
( Ron et al., 2014 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of California
Emory University, USA
University of Cambridge, UK
Male sterility for hybrid seed production reduces costs and ensures high varietal purity.
( Du et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences
Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, China
Generating male sterility lines (MLS). Using MLS in hybrid seed production reduces costs and ensures high purity of the varieties because it does not produce pollen and has exserted stigmas.
( Jung et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hankyong National University
Hanyang University
Sunchon National University
Chungbuk National University
Tomato Research Center, South Korea
Increasing cross over frequency. Cross over formation during meiosis is essential for crop breeding to introduce favourable alleles controlling important traits from wild relatives into crops.
( de Maagd et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Wageningen University &
Research, The Netherlands
Generating male sterility lines (MLS). Using MLS in hybrid seed production reduces costs and ensures high purity of the varieties because it does not produce pollen and has exserted stigmas.
( Liu et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northwest A&
F University
Xi’an Jinpeng Seedlings Co. Ltd.
Hybrid Rapeseed Research Center of Shaanxi Province, China
Fertility recovery of male sterility in wheat lines with excelling agronomic and economic traits for breeding purpose, as male-sterile plants cannot be used for selection.
( Tang et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
China Agricultural University, China
Improve biofuel production by mediating lignin modification. Lignocellulosic biomasses are an abundant renewable source of carbon energy. Heterogenous properties of lignocellulosic biomass and intrinsic recalcitrance caused by cell wall lignification lower the biorefinery efficiency. Reduced lignin content is desired.
( Lee et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST)
University of Science and Technology (UST)
Daejeon, South Korea
Increased monounsaturated fatty acid contents (MUFAs). Due to their higher thermal-oxidative stability and viscosity relative to other common fatty acids, MUFAs are preferred for industrial uses, for example as biolubricants and biodiesel fuels.
( Lee et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Institute of Agricultural Sciences
Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Chonnam National University
Plant Engineering Research Institute, South Korea
Self-incompatibility to prevent inbreeding in hermaphrodite angiosperms via the rejection of self-pollen.
( Dou et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Accelerate flowering, a rare event under glasshouse conditions. Modified starch.
( Bull et al., 2018 )
SDN3
CRISPR/Cas
Institute of Molecular Plant Biology, Switzerland
Confer male and female sterility to prevent the risk of trasgene flow from transgenic plants to their wild relatives.
( Shinoyama et al., 2020 )
SDN1
TALENs
Fukui Agricultural Experiment Station
Institute of Agrobiological Sciences
National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO)
Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST)
Yokohama City University, Japan
Altai State University, Russia
Trait stacking. Modern agriculture demands crops carrying multiple traits.
( Ainley et al., 2013 )
SDN1
ZFN
Dow AgroSciences LLC
Sangamo BioSciences, Inc., USA
Conferring water logging tolerance for further expansion of the cultivation area.
( Abdullah et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Faculty of Agriculture
University of Nottingham
Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
Manipulation of the biosynthesis of bioactive compound alkaloids. Poppy produces many benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) used in biomedicines.
( Alagoz et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cankiri Karatekin University
Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey
Stem wood discoloration due to lignin reduction.
( Zhou et al., 2015 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Georgia, USA
Complete reproductive sterility to prevent the spread of highly domesticated, exotic or genetically modified organisms into wild populations.
( Azeez et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Michigan Technological University, USA
Confer male sterility for hybrid seed production. Male sterility is an important trait, especially for self-pollinated crops such as rice.
( Ma et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
South China Agricultural University, China
Generation of male-sterile hexaploid wheat lines for use in hybrid seed production. The development and adoption of hybrid seed technology have led to dramatic increases in agricultural productivity.
( Okada et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
The University of Adelaide, Australia
Huaiyin Normal University, China
Complete male sterility. The generation, restoration, and maintenance of male sterile lines are the key issues for large-scale commercial hybrid seed production.
( Li et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Peking University Institute of Advanced Agricultural Sciences
School of Advanced Agriculture Sciences and School of Life Sciences
Beijing Key Laboratory of Plant Gene Resources and Biotechnology for Carbon Reduction and Environmental Improvement, China
Generation of a new thermo-sensitive genic male sterile rice line for hybrid breeding of indica rice.
( Barman et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China National Rice Research Institute, China
Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Bangladesh
Fertility restoration of cytoplasmic male sterility.
( Suketomo et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Tohoku University, Japan
Male sterility and decreased total fatty acid content in the anther.
( Basnet et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University
Yangtze University, China
Generate self-compatible diploid potato lines for the application of efficient breeding methods.
( Enciso-Rodriguez et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Michigan State University, USA
Domestication: Conferred domesticated phenotypes yet retained parental disease resistance (predominately Xanthomonas perforans), and salt tolerance.
(Li et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Development of commercial thermosensitive genic male sterile lines to accelerate hybrid rice breeding.
( Zhou et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources
Key Laboratory of Plant Functional Genomics and Biotechnology of Guangdong Provincial Higher Education Institutions
South China Agricultural University
China National Hybrid Rice R&
D Center, China
Induction of haploid plants and a reduced seed set for rice breeding.
( Yao et al., 2018 )
SDN2
CRISPR/Cas
ZhongGuanCun Life Science Park, China
Syngenta India Limited
Technology Centre
Medchal Mandal, India
Syngenta Crop Protection
LLC
Research Triangle Park, USA
Asexual propagation trough seeds. Induction of apomeiosis, mitosis instead of meiosis. This proces leads to the production of genetically identical seeds, serving many applications in plant breeding.
( Khanday et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of California
Innovative Genomics Institute
Iowa State University, USA
Université Paris-Saclay, France
Genetic variability. The genetically reprogrammed rice plants can act as donor lines to stabilize important agronomic traits or can be a potential resource to create more segregating population.
( K et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Agricultural Sciences
Regional Centre for Biotechnology, India
Creation of photoperiod-/thermo-sensitive genic male-sterile (P/TGMS) lines, important for commercial rice breeding. P/TGMS rice lines are useful germplasm resources for two-line hybrid breeding.
( Lan et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Generating male sterility lines (MLS). Using MLS in hybrid seed production for monoclinous crops reduces costs and ensures high purity of the varieties because it does not produce pollen and has exserted stigmas.
( Li et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Peking University Institute of Advanced Agricultural Sciences
School of Advanced Agriculture Sciences and School of Life Sciences
Peking University
Beijing Key Laboratory of Plant Gene Resources and Biotechnology for Carbon Reduction and Environmental Improvement,China
Removal of methyl iodide emissions. The release of methyl iodide in the athmospere causes ozone depletion and thus represents an important environmental threat.
( Carlessi et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
PlantLab
Institute of Life Sciences
Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna
University of Pisa
University of Milan, Italy
Enhanced biomass saccharification by altered lignin biosynthesis. The intrinsic recalcitrance of lignocellulose residues requires high energy input for bioethanol production.
( Zhang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University
Hubei University of Arts &
Science
Guangxi University, China
Prolonged basic vegetative growth periods for flexible cropping systems in southern China, as well as in other low-latitude regions. Most of the mid-latitude varities were sensitive to temperature or photoperiod, resulting in low grain yield when cultivated in low-latitude regions.
( Wu et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Fujian Agricultural and Forestry University
Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Minjiang University, China
Production of herbicide-sensitive strain to prevent volunteer infestation. Volunteer rice grows when cultivated rice seed fall into fields, overwinter and spontaneously germinate the next spring.
( Komatsu et al., 2020 )

BE
Institute of Agrobiological Sciences
National Agriculture and Food Research Organization (NARO)
Graduate School of Science
Technology and Innovation, Japan
Accelerated domestication of African rice landraces by improving domestication traits such as sheed shattering, lodging and seed yield. The acceleration of the development of high-yield African landrace varieties is important considering that Africa has a strong growing population and prone to food shortage.
( Lacchini et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Milan, Italy
University of Montpellier, France
Haploid induction to accelerate breeding in crop plants.
( Rangari et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Punjab Agricultural University, India
Rescued hybrid female fertility. Hybrids between divergent populations commonly show hybrid sterility; this reproductive barrier hinders hybrid breeding of the japonica and indica rice subspecies.
( Guo et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs
Guangdong Key Laboratory of New Technology in Rice Breeding
Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences
South China Agricultural University, China
Generating genic male sterility lines (GMS). GMS can promote heterosis in rapeseed. Compared with other approaches, GMS brings about nearly complete male sterility to a hybrid breeding program.
( Wang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northwest A&
F University
Hybrid Rapeseed Research Centre of Shaanxi Province, China
Establishment of maternal haploid induction. Doubled haploid technology is used to obtain homozygous lines in a single generation. This technique significantly accelerates the crop breeding trajectory.
( Tian et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Beijing Key Laboratory of Vegetable Germplasm Improvement, China
Pollen Self-Elimination, which prevents pollen transgene dispersal.
( Wang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS)
Northwest A&
F University
Hainan Yazhou Bay Seed Lab
Henan Jinyuan Seed Industry Co., China
International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), Mexico
Doubled haploids with increased leaf size. Doubled haploid technology is used to obtain homozygous lines in a single generation. This technique significantly accelerates the crop breeding trajectory.
( Impens et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ghent University
VIB-UGent Center for Plant Systems Biology
Flanders Research Institute for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (ILVO), Belgium
Generating male sterility lines (MLS). Using MLS in hybrid seed production reduces costs and ensures high seed purity during hybrid seed production.
( Zhou et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences
Chinese Academy of Sciences
China Agricultural University, China
Enhanced biomass saccharification by remodelling of cell wall composition.
( Dang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shenyang Agricultural University/Key Laboratory of Northern geng Super Rice Breeding, China
Modified wood composition with traits desirable for fiber pulping and lower carbon emissions. The edited wood could bring efficiencies, bioeconomic opportunities and environmental benefits.
( Sulis et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
North Carolina State University
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
Beihua University
Northeast Forestry University, China
Higher haploid induction rate. Haploid induction allows formation of doubled haploids, which can be used to rapidly fix genetic information.
( Jang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chonnam National University
Pusan National University
Kyung Hee University, South Korea
Generating male sterility lines (MLS). Using MLS in hybrid seed production for monoclinous crops reduces costs and ensures high purity of the varieties because it does not produce pollen and has exserted stigmas. Complete abolition of pollen development.
( An et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Science and Technology Beijing
Yili Normal University
Zhongzhi International Institute of Agricultural Biosciences
Beijing Solidwill Sci-Tech Co. Ltd., China
Reversible complete male sterility. Very precise hormone mediated control of male fertility transition showed great potential for hybrid seed production in Brassica species crops.
( Cheng et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs
Henan Normal University, China
Bio-fuel production: decreased lignin content improves cell wall composition for production of bio-ethanol.
(Laksana et al., 2024)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Burapha University Sakaeo Campus
Kasetsart University, Thailand
Improved pollen viability.
( Lv et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Mianyang Normal University
South China Agricultural University, China
Generate self-compatible diploid potato lines for the application of efficient breeding methods.
( Eggers et al., 2021 )
SDN3
CRISPR/Cas
Solynta
Wageningen University &
Research, The Netherlands
Confer male and female sterility to prevent the risk of trasgene flow from transgenic plants to their wild relatives.
( Wu et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
Jilin Agricultural University
Zhejiang Lab, China
Dwarf plants that retain favourable fruit traits.
( Nagamine et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Tsukuba, Japan
Male sterility.
( Tu et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University
Jiaxing Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Smaller petunia plants with high flower abundance.
( Abdulla et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Ondokuz Mayis University, Turkey
Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Egypt
Enhanced oil accumulation in the seed.
( Cai et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Brookhaven National Laboratory
Stony Brook University
Montana State University, USA

Traits related to herbicide tolerance

Herbicide resistance.
( Li et al., 2016 )
SDN2
TALENs
Iowa State University, USA
Resistance to imidazolinone herbicides.
( Zhu et al., 2000 )

ODM
Novartis Agricultural Discovery Institute
Pioneer Hi-Bred International, USA
Resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides.
( Okuzaki et al., 2003 )

ODM
Tohoku University, Japan
Herbicide resistance: acetolactate synthase (ALS)
(Jiang et al., 2020)

PE
China Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Henan University, China
Herbicide glyphosate tolerance.
( Arndell et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
CSIRO
New South Wales Department of Primary Industries
The University of Adelaide, Australia
Bispyribac sodium, haloxyfop
( Xu et al., 2021 )

BE
Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Haloxyfop
( Liu et al., 2020 )

BE
Anhui Agricultural University
Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Haloxyfop-R-methyl
( Xu et al., 2020 )

PE
Anhui Academy of Agricultural Science, China
Glyphosate
( Li et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Glyphosate resistance.
( Ortega et al., 2018 )
SDN2
CRISPR/Cas
New Mexico State University, USA
Bispyribac sodium
( Kuang et al., 2020 )

BE
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
China Agricultural University
Zhejiang University, China
Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Norway
Bialaphos & quizalofop.
( Shukla et al., 2009 )
SDN3
ZFN
Dow AgroSciences
Sangamo BioSciences, USA
Bispyribac sodium
( Butt et al., 2020 )

PE
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Saudi Arabia
Nicosulfuron
( Zong et al., 2018 )

BE
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Resistance to either imidazolinone or sulfonylurea herbicides
( Zhu et al., 1999 )

ODM
Pioneer Hi-Bred International, USA
Resistance to herbicides that inhibit 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), acetolactate synthase (ALS), or acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) activity.
( Qiao et al., 2022 )

PE
China Agricultural University
Henan University, China
Herbicide (haloxyfop) resistance.
( Li et al., 2020 )

BE
Chinese Academy of Sciences
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Increased herbicide tolerance.
( Sun et al., 2016 )
SDN2
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Herbicide tolerance: Bispyribac-sodium (BS). BS is a pyrimidinyl carboxy herbicide.
(Zafar et al., 2023)
SDN2
CRISPR/Cas
Constituent College of Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Engineering and Management Sciences (BUITEMS), Pakistan
Improved paraquat resistance in rice without obvious yield penalty.
( Lyu et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University, China
Herbicide tolerance: AHAS-inhibiting
(Gocal et al., 2015)

ODM
Cibus, Canada
Cibus, USA
Herbicide tolerance: glyphosate
(Hummel et al., 2017)
SDN3
CRISPR/Cas
Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, USA
Herbicide tolerance: glyphosate
(Sauer et al., 2016)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Cibus, USA
Glyphosate & hppd inhibitor herbicides, for example tembotrione
( D'Halluin et al., 2013 )
SDN2
CRISPR/Cas
Bayer CropScience N.V, Belgium
Chlorsulfuron
( Svitashev et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
DuPont Pioneer, USA
Imidazolinone & sulfonylurea
( Zhu et al., 1999 )

ODM
Pioneer Hi-Bred International, USA
Herbicide tolerance (ALS-targeting)
( Wang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Nanjing Branch of Chinese National Center for Rice Improvement
Yangzhou University
Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Jiangsu University, China
CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Australia
Herbicide tolerance: ALS-inhibiting
(Okuzaki et al., 2004)

ODM
Tohoku University, Japan
Herbicide resistance
( Shimatani et al. 2018 )

BE
Kobe University, Japan
University of Tsukuba, Japan
Imazethapyr, imazapic
( Wang et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Nanjing Branch of Chinese National Center for Rice Improvement
Yangzhou University
Jiangsu University, China
CSIRO Agriculture and Food, Australia
Bispyribac sodium
( Butt et al., 2017 )
SDN2
CRISPR/Cas
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia
Agricultural Research Center, Egypt
Rice University, USA
Chlorsulfuron
( Svitashev et al., 2015 )
SDN2
CRISPR/Cas
DuPont Pioneer, USA
Chlorsulfuron
( Li et al., 2015 )
SDN2
CRISPR/Cas
DuPont Pioneer Agricultural Biotechnology, USA
Imidizolinone
( Butler et al., 2016 )
SDN2
CRISPR/Cas
Michigan State University
University of Minnesota, USA
Imidizolinone
( Butler et al., 2016 )
SDN2
TALENs
Michigan State University
University of Minnesota, USA
Glyphosate
( Li et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Glyphosate
( Wang et al., 2021 )

CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University
Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Herboxidiene
( Butt et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Saudi Arabia
Universite Paris-Saclay, France
FCD & bipyrazone
( Lu et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University
Qingdao Kingagroot Compounds Co. Ltd
Guizhou University
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Imazamox
( Shimatani et al. 2017 )

BE
Kobe University
University of Tsukuba
Meijo University, Japan
ALS-inhibiting herbicides broad spectrum: Nicosulfuron, imazapic, pyroxsulam, flucarbazone, bispyriba
(Zhang et al., 2020)

BE
Chinese Academy of Sciences
China Agricultural University, China
Nicosulfuron, mesosulfuron, imazapic, quizalofop
( Zhang et al., 2019 )

BE
Chinese Academy of Sciences
China Agricultural University, China
Tribenuron methyl
( Wu et al., 2020 )

BE
Yangzhou University
Shanghai Normal University, China
Tribenuron
( Tian et al., 2018 )

BE
Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences
China Agricultural University, China
Sulfonylurea
( Li et al., 2019 )

BE
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Qingdao Agricultural University
Anhui Agricultural University, China
Chlorsulfuron
( Veillet et al., 2019 )

BE
Université Rennes 1
INRA PACA
Université Paris-Saclay, France
Chlorsulfuron
( Veillet et al., 2019 )

BE
Université Rennes 1
INRA PACA
Université Paris-Saclay, France
Haloxyfopo-R-methyl
( Li et al., 2018 )

BE
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Dinitroanaline
( Liu et al., 2021 )

BE
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
China Agricultural University
Zhejiang University
Scientific Observing and Experimental Station of Crop Pests in Guilin, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, China
Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Norway
Dinitroanaline
( Han et al., 2021 )

BE
Shandong Normal University
Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Imidazolinone, haloxyfop-R-methyl, glufosinate, dinitroaniline
( Yan et al., 2021 )

BE
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
China Agricultural University
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs
Jilin Agricultural University
Zhejiang University
Strong ALS-herbicide resistance
( Wang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, China
Resistance to HPPD-inhibiting herbicides.
( Wu et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genomics and Molecular Breeding, China
Herbicide tolerance: resistance to AHAS-inhibiting herbicides.
(Wei et al., 2023)

BE
Nankai University
China Agricultural University, China
Herbicide-resistance (ALS-targeting).
( Shi et al., 2023 )

BE
Henan Biological Breeding Center Co.
The Shennong Laboratory, China
Herbicide tolerant plant.
( Liang et al., 2022 )

CRISPR/Cas
Shanxi University
University of Electronic Science and Technology of China
Shenzhen Polytechnic
Genovo Biotechnology Co. Ltd, China
Chlorsulfuron resistance.
( Huang et al., 2023 )

BE
University of Florida, USA
Increased herbicide tolerance.
( Kaul et al., 2024 )
SDN2
CRISPR/Cas
International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB)
Indian Council of Agricultural Research- Indian Institute of Maize Research
Indian Council of Agricultural Research
ICAR-National Institute of Biotic Stress Management

Traits related to product color/flavour

Color change of the taproot from orange to pink-orange and slightly higher content of α-carotene in the taproot.
( Li et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanjing Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, China
Tomatoes with different fruit colors, including yellow, brown, pink, light-yellow, pink-brown, yellow-green, and light green.
( Yang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Qingdao Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, China
Albino phenotype.
( Wilson et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
NIAB EMR, UK
Albino phenotype and early flowering.
( Charrier et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Université d'
Angers, France
Fine-tuned anthocyanin biosynthesis.
( )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Northeast Forestry University, Horticultural Sub-academy of Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Wonsan University of Agriculture, South Korea
Albino phenotype.
( Brewer et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Florida, USA
Yellow stems and leaves.
( Sun et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Sichuan Agricultural University
Zhejiang University, China
Fine-tuning anthocyanin content.
( Yan et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
South China Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Varieties with chemical and sensorial variation, spread along a major gradient ranging between sweet, spicy, fresh and typical tomato flavors.
( Tikunov et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Wageningen University and Research
The Netherlands
Albino phenotype.
( De Bruyn et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Flanders Research Institute for Agriculture
Fisheries and Food (ILVO)
Ghent University
Center for Plant Systems Biology Belgium
Tangerine color
( Kim et al., 2022 )
SDN2
CRISPR/Cas
Hankyong National University
Korea Polar Research Institute
Chungbuk National University
Seoul National University College of Medicine
Hankyong National University, South Korea
Altered color of petals and leaves.
( Li et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University
Hubei Hongshan Laboratory, China
Brown color and increased sugar content.
( Kim et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hankyong National University
Korea Polar Research Institute
Seoul National University College of Medicine
Chungbuk National University, South Korea
Albino phenotype
( Fan et al., 2015 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Southwest University
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Albino phenotype.
( Yeap et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Sime Darby Plantation Technology Centre Sdn. Bhd.
Sime Darby Plantation Research Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia
Albino phenotype.
( Huang et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Forestry, China
Anthocyanin-rich and pigmented sweet oranges.
( Salonia et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Research Centre for Olive Fruit and Citrus Crops
University of Catania
Research and Innovation Centre Trento, Italy
Albino phenotype.
( Charrier et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Université d'
Angers, France
Colour shift. The poinsettia belongs to most economically important potted ornamental plants. Customers are willing to pay higher prices for unusual varieties.
( Nitarska et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Technische Universität Wien, Austria
Klemm+Sohn GmbH &
Co
Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany
Albinism and dwarfing.
( Naim et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Queensland University of Technology, Australia
Albino phenotype.
( Wilson et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
NIAB EMR, UK
Albino phenotype.
( Syombua et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)
University of Nairobi, Kenya
University of Missouri
Iowa State University
Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, USA
Fruit color: tangerine
(Ben Shlush et al., 2021)
SDN2
CRISPR/Cas
The Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel
Color modification: yellow. Ipomoea nil exhibits a variety of flower colours, except yellow.
(Watanabe et al., 2018)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Tsukuba
National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Japan
Albino phenotype.
( Wang et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Botany
Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Botany
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Albino phenotype.
( Kaur et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute (NABI), India
Albino phenotype
( Bánfalvi et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
NARIC Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, Hungary
Colour modification. Purple tomatoes.
( Cermak et al., 2015 )
SDN2
CRISPR/Cas
University of Minnesota, USA
Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Czech Republic
Red rice. The pigments of coloured rice contain high levels of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins which have been recognized as health-promoting nutrients.
( Zhu et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Xiamen University
Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Minjiang University, China
Albino phenotype. Diversity in fruit color. Watermelon is an important fruit croup throughout the world.
( Tian et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Beijing Key Laboratory of Vegetable Germplasm Improvement
China Agricultural University
Beijing University of Agriculture, China
Purple color.
( Xu et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanjing Agricultural University, China
Crop modification: albino phenotype.
(Wang et al., 2017)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
University of Pennsylvania, USA
Flower color modification to a pale purplish pink flower color compared to the purple violet wild type.
( Yu et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hanyang University
Chungnam National University, South Korea
Fruit coloration. Fruit color affects consumer preference and is one of the breeding objectives of great interests. For example, white-fruited cultivars are sold at a much higher price than red-fruited cultivars.
( Gao et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University, China
University of Maryland, USA
Yellow and orange fruit color.
( Dahan-Meir et al., 2018 )
SDN2
CRISPR/Cas
Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel
Pink fruit color.
( Deng et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Color modification: pink tomatoes.
(Yang et al., 2019)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Huazhong Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, China
Colour modification. Purple tomatoes.
( Cermak et al., 2015 )
SDN2
TALENs
University of Minnesota, USA
Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Czech Republic
Color modification due to reduced anthocyanin accumulation.
( Klimek-Chodacka et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Agriculture in Krakow, Poland
East Carolina University
University of Maryland, USA
Flower color modification due to reduced anthocyanin content. Flower color is one of the most important traits in ornamental flowers.
( Nishihara et al. (2018) )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Iwate Biotechnology Research Center, Japan
Yellow colored seed.
( Huang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Hunan University of Science and Technology
Oil Crops Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
Increased content of phenylacetaldehyde, sucrose and fructose, which are major contributors to flavor in many foods, including tomato.
( Li et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Florida, USA
Max-Planck-Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology, Germany
Reduced citrate content. Citrate is a common primary metabolite which often characterizes fruit flavour.
( Fu et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Zhejiang University, China
University of Florida, USA
The New Zealand Institute for Plant &
Food Research Limited (Plant &
Food Research) Mt Albert
University of Auckland, New Zealand
Pale purple phenotype due to dramatic decrease of anthocyanins content.
( Duan et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
College of Horticulture, China
Improved aroma, flavour and fatty acid (FA) profiles of pea seeds.
( Bhowmik et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
National Research Council Canada (NRC)
University of Calgary
University of Saskatchewan
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC)
St. Boniface Hospital Research, Canada
John Innes Centre, UK
Brown seed-coat color.
( Jia et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Southern University of Science and Technology
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
South China Agricultural University, China
Donald Danforth Plant Science Center
University of Missouri, USA
Altered ornamental quality: Increased sensitivity to low temperature, thus affecting leaf margin coloration.
(Zhou et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shenyang Agricultural University
Breeding and Cultivation of Liaoning Province
Dalian Minzu University
Key Laboratory of Biotechnology and Bioresources Utilization, China
Alleviated browning of freshly cut potatoes.
( Shi et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Shandong Agricultural University, China
Albino phenotype.
( Phad et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Plant Biotechnology Research Center, India
A significant reduction of saponins. Saponins are a source of bitter, and metallic off-flavors in products containing peas.
( Hodgins et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Universityof Calgary
Universityof Saskatchewan
National Research Council of Canada, Canada
Adjusted fruit colors and flavours such as increased glucose or fructose content.
( Jia et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Jiangxi Agricultural University
Anhui Agricultural University
Research Centre for Biological Breeding Technology
Zhejiang University
Southern University of Science and Technology, China
Popcorn-like fragrance.
( Zhang et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China National Rice Research Institute
China
Improved fruit ripening and increased fruit firmness at the red ripe stage.
( Zhang et al., 2024 )
SDN2
CRISPR/Cas
Henan Agricultural University
Huazhong Agricultural University, China

Traits related to storage performance

Altering tomato fruit ripening and softening, key traits for fleshy fruit. During ripening, fruit will gradually soften which is largely the result of fruit cell wall degradation. Softening may improve the edible quality of fruit but also reduces fruit resistance to pathogenic microorganisms. Fruit softening can cause mechanical damage during storage and transportation as well, which can reduce the storage and shelf life, leading to fruit loss.
( Gao et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University
South China Agricultural University
Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
Zhejiang University
Beijing University of Agriculture, China
University of Nottingham, UK
Repressed fruit ripening by repressing ethylene production and lycopene accumulation.
( Li et al., 2018 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University, China
Delayed fruit ripening.
( Li et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanjing Agricultural University, China
University of Connecticut, USA
High vigor and improved storage tolerance of seeds.
( Chen et al., 2022 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Nanjing Agricultural University, China
Increased shelf-life. Banana fruit has a high economic importance but will ripen and decay in one week after exogenous ethylene induction. Fast ripening limits its storage, transportation and marketing.
( Hu et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, China
Improved shelf life.
( Yu et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Science, China
Controlling the rate of fruit softening to extend shelf life.
( Uluisik et al., 2016 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Nottingham
Royal Holloway University of London
Heygates Ltd
Syngenta Seeds
Sutton Bonington Campus, UK
Syngenta Crop Protection
University of California
Cornell University
Skidmore College, USA
Enhancement of flowering time. Petunia has become popular in the floriculture industry, however it is sensitive to ethylene, which causes flower senescence.
( Xu et al., 2021 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Kyungpook National University
Kangwon National University, South Korea
Improved cold storage and processing traits: reduced levels of acrylamide, reduced sugars.
(Clasen et al., 2017)
SDN1
TALENs
Cellectis Plant Science, USA
Reduced enzymatic browning. The formation of dark-colored precipitates in fruits and vegetables causes undesirable changes in organoleptic properties and the loss of nutritional quality.
( Gonzalez et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET)
Laboratorio de Agrobiotecnología (INTA)
Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Argentina
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden
Improved seed storability. Deterioration of rice grain reduces the quality of rice, resulting in serious economic losses for farmers.
( Ma et al., 2015 )
SDN1
TALENs
China Agricultural University, China
Improved shelf-life by targeting the genes modulating pectin degradation in ripening tomato.
( Wang et al., 2019 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of London
University of Leicester
University of Nottingham
University of Leeds, UK
International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia
Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
University of California, USA
Reduced fruit flesh browning. The browning of eggplant berry flesh after cutting has a negative impact on fruit quality for both industrial transformation and fresh consumption.
( Maioli et al., 2020 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Torino, Italy
Instituto de Biologica Molecular y Celular de Plantas (IBMCP)
Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain
Delayed fruit ripening.
( Lang et al., 2017 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Purdue University, USA
Increased seed longevity. Maintaining seed longevity and preventing the decline of quality during long-term storage is a universal problem.
( Wang et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Ministry of Agriculture and Affairs, China
Improved strawberry fruit firmness. The postharvest shelf life is highly limited by the loss of firmness, making firmness one of the most important fruit quality traits.
( López-Casado et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Universidad de Málaga
Universidad de Córdoba, Spain
Delayed fruit inner ripening.
( Ao et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Chongqing University, China
The fruit remains green and shows higher firmness as well as no early fermentation. This results in extended shelf-life which could reduce food loss and contribute to food security.
( Nonaka et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of Tsukuba, Japan
Improved shelf-life with improved or not affected sugar: acid ratio, aroma volatiles, and skin color.
(Ortega-Salazar et al., 2023)
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
University of California, USA
Zhejiang Normal University, China
University of Nottingham, UK
Decreased postharvest water loss with a 17–30% increase in wax accumulation.
( Chen et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
China Agricultural University
Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
University of Nottingham, UK
Extended root shelf-life, which decreases its wastage.
( Mukami et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Kenyatta University
Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture Technology
Pwani University Kilifi, Kenya
Decreased cold-induced sweetening of the potato tubers.
Cold-storage causes undesired sweetening which reduces the quality and the commercial value of the tubers.
( Hassan et al., 2023 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Agricultural Genetic Engineering Research Institute - Agricultural Research Center
Ain Shams University, Egypt
Delayed onset of riping.
( Jeon et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Kyungpook National University
Sunchon National University, South Korea
Enhanced storage potential of ripening fruits.
( Do et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Kyungpook National University
Sunchon National University
Catholic University of Korea, South Korea
Delayed colour change of fruits.
( Li et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Gansu Agricultural University
Guangxi University
Yangtze University, China
Enhanced oleic acid to linoleic acid ratio. This adjusted ratio can improve the shelf life of peanut oil.
( Rajyaguru et al., 2024 )
SDN1
CRISPR/Cas
Junagadh Agricultural University, India